Pay High Attention to Online Ideological Security

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This article by Lieutenant-General Li Dianren of the National Defence University was published first in the Chinese Journal of Social Science, and republished on Seeking Truth online, on 15 June.

Li Dianren

General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that cybersecurity and informatization are two wings of one bird and two wheels of one cart, they must be uniformly planned, uniformly deployed, uniformly moved forward and uniformly implemented. In constructing a strong network country, we must, together with strengthening informatization construction and guaranteeing the security of information infrastructure, give high regard to building a social governance system for the network, guarantee ideological cybersecurity, and incessantly strengthen our capacity to protect cybersecurity.

I, We must put safeguarding ideological cybersecurity in an equally important position as safeguarding information technology security.

As everyone knows, computers and the Internet all originate in the United States, the absolute majority of core elements and equipment, and the most central computer software services also come from the United States and other Western countries. They use developed network technology methods to closely control the global information network, and hold an absolutely superior position in development in the area of information technology. “Prism”, “X-Key Score” and other such surveillance plans have already come to light, confirming that the capacity and scale of the United States’ cyber activity vastly exceeds the imagination of people worldwide. The US Army openly established a joint cyber warfare command, especially in charge of penetrating, monitoring and destroying other countries’ network systems. Looking back at our country, we are largely reliant on import for those central network components such as core processors and crucial chips. Because of this, to safeguard cybersecurity, we must safeguard security at the level of information technology.

Equally important as safeguarding information technology security is safeguarding ideological cybersecurity. The former aims for hard power, the latter fights in soft disputes. Together, these two constitute two indispensible sides of cybersecurity. At present, some Western countries rely on their “network information superiority”, to change the network into a main channel to penetrate and destroy other countries, export Western ideology on a large scale, preach Western political systems and models, slander and attack other countries’ political systems and value views, vigorously conduct “peaceful evolution” and carry out “colour revolutions”, and direct one “smokeless war” after another. To some extent, ideological penetration has become one of the main forms of Western “netwar”, it is the same as “hard destruction” based on information technology, and it constitutes a grave challenge to target countries’ cybersecurity and national security.

Because of China’s characteristic political system and development path, and in addition, the fact that China is in a specific historical stage of transformation from large to strong, it is perceived as a threat to the interests of large countries. Because of this, some Western forces have made China into the focus point of online ideological infiltration and attack. John Huntsman, a former US ambassador to China, has openly stated in domestic arguments that it is necessary to vie with China for the new generation of Internet netizens, that he hopes to bring change to China’s political system by influencing them, in order to topple China. The former Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, has also repeatedly made speeches concerning Internet freedom, attacking China’s Internet policies, even inflaming people and stirring up trouble, in an attempt to draw in a number of Internet enterprises to resist our country’s network management policies. In view of this, we naturally are driven to the most forward position in the ideological struggle. This is an objective fact.

Exactly because the Internet has become a main ideological battlefield, we must pay attention to ideological cybersecurity in the same way that we pay attention to information technology security. It may be said that, without cybersecurity, there is no national security; without ideological cybersecurity, there is no security of the national political system, and prolonged order and stability in the national governing system, as well as harmony and stability become empty words.

II, In safeguarding ideological cybersecurity, the key lies in perfecting the governing system for the network society

Our country has 564 million netizens and 420 million mobile network users, it is the country with the largest Internet-using population in the world. The network has become a virtual society worthy of the name. In governing societies, institutions have a fundamental, comprehensive and long-term role, and we must perfect social governance structures. Equally, to govern the Internet and safeguard cybersecurity, we must without doubt make advanced technology and excellent equipment into a focus material basis, but we must at the same time also make legal and regulatory structures into institutional guarantees for them. Especially in the area of safeguarding ideological cybersecurity, technological measures can only have a supplementary role, we must progressively formulate and implement a set of mature and well-developed structures for network management through perfecting network society governance systems, before the role of institutions can be given free rein, and guarantee the initiative in the online ideological struggle, at the same time as effectively guaranteeing the development of the network society.

To perfect the network society governance system, we must incessantly standardize all regulatory structures for cybersecurity, and ensure that there are laws to rely on. At present, our country’s ideological information dissemination is wholly free and open, different ideas and discourses can be effectively expressed on the network. But we cannot permit mistaken discourse or thinking trends that harm national security and endanger social stability to flood the network because we want to protect online freedom and advocate overall inclusiveness. We must unwaveringly strengthen network legislation and governance, and create norms for discourse involving ideology and especially involving the basic system of the Party and the country. In this area, the US is our “teacher”. Even though the US consistently boasts about freedom and democracy, that does not mean that individuals can use the Internet without restrictions. In fact, the United States is the first country in the world to create rules for and manage Internet content. Since 1978, the US successively rolled out the “Telecommunications Act”, the “Telecommunications Content Propriety Act” and 130 other laws and regulations involving Internet management, which clearly stipulate that the government has the power to inspect content involving national security, prohibit use of the Internet to propagate racist, terrorist and other such discourse, and prohibit the dissemination of discourse threatening the President and national security on the Internet. In fact, the US has also brought some people who propagate left-wing ideas and especially Communist ideas into the scope of focused investigation. On the one hand, the United States use social media networks to play the part of pushers behind the curtains in the upheavals in West Asia, North Africa, Ukraine, etc.; on the other hand, the head of the US Department for Homeland Security, Karen Wagner, has stated at a conference for homeland security and national defence that, because it has been seen that social media networks have had a great role in the upheavals in West Asia and North Africa, this body had begun to draft new laws and regulations to supervise Twitter, Facebook and other such social network websites. This shows that on the one hand, the US attempts to cause “leading the disastrous flood eastwards” through ideologically penetration, and on the other hand attempts to guarantee that the disastrous floods is not led into their own houses through legislation. These facts also show that managing Internet content as things happen, has a grave artificial flavour, and it is very hard to control the extent to which it happens, this can be resolved through legislation, which creates standards and bases [to act].

“In the affairs of All under Heaven, are not difficult to legislate, but it is difficult to ensure the implementation of the law”. To perfect network society governance systems, we must also give rein to the hart constraining power of institutions, and ensure that there are laws to rely on. We must earnestly implement localized management and the demands of “who manages is responsible” and “who runs a business is responsible”, integrate administrative management with sector self-discipline and public discipline, and guarantee that existing laws and regulations can be implemented. A trend that merits attention at present is that some commercial Internet portal website, under the pressure of market competition, and with the aim of profit maximization, disregard their social responsibilities and national security, and take a pragmatic attitude towards network laws and regulations, they implement those laws beneficial to them, and do not implement those not beneficial to them. Specifically, they clearly know that some Weibo Big Vs are attacking the Party and the government on a great scale, they wantonly vilify the history of the Party, the military and the revolution, and because they have large numbers of fans, and because they can create hot topics, they bring hit rates and microblog liveliness rates, because of this, they are not only stopped and corrected according to the requirements of relevant management departments, on the contrary, they are supported and winked at in secret. There is also a small number of Internet management officials who, in order to earn a so-called “clean name”, are not seriousness to the severity of the online ideological struggle, and open one eye and close the other vis-a-vis violation of laws and regulations. This sort of short-sighted acts of having laws but not relying on them, not enforcing the law strictly, and not punishing law-breakers can only assist unlawful phenomena online, disorder the online ideological spectrum, and destroy the governing system of online society, this must be firmly rectified.

III, To strengthen network society management, we must deal well with the relation between dynamism and order.

General Secretary Xi Jinping has analysed the dialectical relationship between dynamism and order at many occasions, pointing out that social governance is a science, manage it too rigidly, it will become a pool of stagnant water, this will not do; manage it too loosely, there will be turbulent undercurrents, this will also not doo. To guarantee ideological cybersecurity and strengthen network society governance, we must equally deal well with the relationship between order and dynamism. One large characteristic of the network society is its openness and dynamic nature. On the one hand, we must strengthen ideological security management, and ensure that an orderly development situation emerges; but on the other hand, we can also not manage matters immoderately and without limits, and even smother the vitality and development of the Internet.

First and foremost, we should conduct categorized management on the basis of different situations. Looking from the general situation in the online ideological and public opinion area, there are only three sorts of content: one kind is red content, which propagates mainstream Party and State ideology, it echoes the Socialist core value system, and disseminates positive energy; the second is grey content, which propagates non-mainstream ideology, and corresponds to pluralized interests pursuits and all sorts of social thinking trends, but does not directly threaten mainstream ideology; the third is lack content, which propagates the ideology of Western hostile forces in order to attack the basic system and ideology of the Party and the State, magnify the system’s flaws and the dark side of society, and even creates and disseminates rumours. In response to these three different kinds of content, network society management must adopt different countermeasures. Red content must be vigorously supported. Grey content must be vigorously guided under the precondition of “letting a hundred schools contend and a hundred flowers bloom”. Concerning black content, we must dare to use the weapon of the law to constrain and control it; where there are deliberate acts of rumour-mongering to create trouble, we must seek out the people and punish them according to the law.

Furthermore, we must actively broaden the space for online activities concerning mainstream ideology. At the same time as controlling anti-mainstream ideology, we must expand, strengthen and enliven mainstream ideology dissemination work, and guide a plural, diverse and changeable online public opinion with a positive voice. In this area, the Party’s ideological workers and management departments absolutely must have a sense of crisis. To a certain degree, since a while, the reason why the trend of a flood of anti-mainstream ideology emerged online is greatly related to the fact that our party’s ideological workers did not understand the network, did not know the network, were not able to deal with the network and did not touch the network, and is greatly related with the fact that our Party’s ideological management departments used traditional paper media methods as a way to control new media. Next, ideological workers must act actively, act vigorously, learn to use the net, be good at using the net, use methods that netizens like to see and hear, to propagate the correct standpoint, display the spirit of the times, and lead the way in moral fashions. Management departments must adapt to the characteristics of new media, on the one hand, they must incessantly reduce the space for mistaken discourse, on the other hand, they must be good at discovering and expanding the “beautiful online events” and the “tear-drawing emotions” on social media networks, present “ordinary heroes”, propagate “the most beautiful people”, propose “the most beautiful spirits”, strive to carry forward the correct social wind, foster a new spirit of civilization and increase the dynamism and energy of the network society.

Finally, we must strengthen protection of regular expressions of the popular will online. As a sort of modern dissemination tool, network and new media generally speaking promote social progress. The final objective of our launching the online ideological struggle is further promoting the development and flourishing of the network society on the basis of safeguarding cybersecurity. Because of this, in line with the spirit of the rule of law where “what the law does not prohibit, is permitted”, and under the precondition of abiding by laws and regulations, we must absolutely enliven online ideas, be good at using the enthusiasm of netizens, and perfect mechanisms for online expression. Especially, we cannot suppress spontaneous online anti-corruption, online supervision as well as regular online topical discussion on the basis of safeguarding ideological security. We must believe that the broad netizens and popular masses have the ability to distinguish right and wrong and an awareness of upholding justice, even if they are duped for a short while, whenever they understand the truth, they will make correct judgments and persist in the correct positions. This bearing of our Communist Party is to believe in the masses and rely on the asses, let the masses educate themselves in practice, improve themselves, and become the masters of the network. Concerning common disputes and confused understanding online, we must still rely on the force of the truth of Marxism, rely on deep and detailed online ideology and political work, rely on the penetrating insights of the masses, use the truth to expose lies, let science vanquish falsehoods, bring back a clear wind of justice to the network, and ensure that the network is cleaned up.

IV, We must strengthen computer system research, development and technological innovation, and fundamentally grasp the initiative

Cybersecurity protection is very important, but the most central matter is still construction. At present, the computer software and hardware systems, network technology standards and agreements that we use are basically all imported, even through we have conducted indigenous innovation ourselves, and have created a number of peripheral equipment and application software ourselves, we have not made great breakthroughs in crucial and core technologies, and are still controlled by others in many areas. For instance, the internal code of computer operating systems is not open, and we are not clear about which activities go on inside, whether or not they leave backdoors and Trojans. Even if we add firewalls or encryption devices ourselves, this is only internal protection, and in a certain way, its external protection capacity is limited. It is like a house, the materials, the structure and the blueprints are all someone else’s, furthermore, they are not open, and home owners’ reliance on the security effect of anti-theft doors and anti-theft windows is limited. The Windows XP system, produced by the American company Microsoft, was withdrawn on 8 April, but the market share of XP in our country is higher than 70%, there are more than 200 million computers that still use the XP system. Microsoft stated that: if you continue to use XP, even if the computer may still work, it may easily face security risks and be subjected to virus attacks. Ni Guangnan, a member of the Engineering Institute of China, stated that: the cessation of XP services is a “major information security incident”. Clearly, our users are “forced” to upgrade to the newest Microsoft system, they are “kidnapped” by Microsoft’s robber mentality. Because of this, in order to fundamentally strengthen network information security and grasp the initiative, we should accelerate the pace at which domestically produced software and hardware replaces [imports], exert great efforts to conduct computer system and network information system research, development and technological innovation, create and invent systems of our own, and formulate standards the conform to our own interests, only then will we be able to fundamentally upgrade the reliability and protection of national information security. Even though this task is greatly difficult, and it will require a long time, it is a threshold we cannot invade, stairs we must climb, this must be earnestly and strategically planned and concretely implemented

(The author is a lieutenant general and professor at the PLA National Defence University)

 

高度重视网络意识形态安全

李殿仁

习近平总书记指出,网络安全和信息化是一体之两翼、驱动之双轮,必须统一谋划、统一部署、统一推进、统一实施。我们建设网络强国,在全面加强信息化建设、确保信息基础设施安全的同时,必须高度重视构建网络社会治理体系、确保网络意识形态安全,不断增强网络安全保障能力。

一、必须把维护网络意识形态安全放在与维护信息技术安全一样的重要位置

众所周知,计算机和互联网都起源于美国,全球大多数的核心元器件设备、最核心的计算机软件服务也都来自美国等西方国家。他们利用发达的网络技术手段,牢牢控制着全球信息网络,在信息技术领域的发展中占有绝对的优势地位。业已暴露出的“棱镜”、“X-关键得分”等监控计划,证实美国的互联网活动能量和规模已远远超出世人想象。美军更是公开成立网络作战联合司令部,专司渗透、监视、摧毁他国的网络系统。反观我国,像核心处理器、关键芯片这些网络核心设备,大部分都还依赖进口。因此,维护网络安全,必须维护信息技术层面的安全。

与维护信息技术安全同等重要的是维护网络意识形态安全。前者拼的是硬实力,后者斗的是软较量。二者加在一起,构成网络安全缺一不可的两个方面。当前,某些西方国家凭借其“网络信息强势”,将网络变成对他国渗透破坏的主渠道,大肆输出西方意识形态,鼓吹西方政治制度模式,诋毁、攻击他国的政治制度和价值观念,积极推行“和平演变”和实施“颜色革命”,导演了一场场“没有硝烟的战争”。某种程度上看,意识形态渗透已成为西方“网战”的主要形态之一,它与基于信息技术基础上的“硬摧毁”一样,对目标国的网络安全和国家安全构成严重挑战。

基于中国特色的政治制度和发展道路,加之中国正处于由大向强转变的特定历史阶段,被认为威胁到在位大国的利益。因此,西方某些势力已经把中国作为网络意识形态渗透与攻击的重点。美国前驻华大使洪博培在其国内辩论中曾公开宣称,要与中国争夺新一代的互联网民,希望通过影响他们带来中国政治制度的变化,借此扳倒中国。美国前国务卿希拉里也曾多次发表关于互联网自由的演讲,对中国的互联网政策进行抨击,甚至煽风点火,企图拉拢部分互联网企业抵制我国的网络管理政策。由此看来,我们理所当然地被推到了意识形态斗争的最前沿。这已经是客观事实。

正因为互联网已经成为意识形态斗争的主战场,所以,我们要像重视信息技术安全一样,重视网络意识形态安全。可以说,没有网络安全,就没有国家安全;没有网络意识形态安全,就没有国家政治制度安全,国家治理体系的长治久安与和谐稳定也就成为了奢谈。

二、维护网络意识形态安全,关键在于完善网络社会治理体系

我国有5.64亿网民,4.2亿手机上网用户,是世界上互联网使用人口最多的国家。网络已经形成了一个名副其实的虚拟社会。治理社会,制度起根本性、全局性、长远性作用,要完善社会治理结构。同样,治理互联网,维护网络安全,固然需要先进的技术和精良的装备作为重要物质基础,但同时也需要法规体系作为其制度保障。尤其在维护网络意识形态安全方面,技术手段只能起辅助作用,必须通过完善网络社会治理体系,逐渐制定并落实一套成熟与定型的网络管理制度,才能更好发挥制度效力,在有效保障网络社会发展的同时,确保网络意识形态斗争主动权。

完善网络社会治理体系,必须不断规范各项网络安全规章制度,做到有法可依。当前,我国网络意识形态信息传播整体上是自由的、开放的,不同的思想、言论都能在网络得到有效表达。但绝不能因为保障网络自由、倡导兼容并包,而允许危害国家安全、危害社会稳定的错误言论与思潮在网络上泛滥。必须毫不动摇地加强网络立法治理,来规范涉及意识形态尤其是涉及党和国家基本制度的言论。这方面,美国是我们的“老师”。纵然美国一向标榜自由和民主,也并不意味着个人可以毫无约束地运用互联网。事实上,美国是世界上最早对互联网内容进行规制和管理的国家。1978年以来,美国先后出台了《电信法》、《通信内容端正法》等130多项涉及互联网管理的法律法规,明确规定,政府有权对涉及国家安全的内容进行审查,要求不得利用互联网宣扬种族主义、恐怖主义等言论,不得在互联网上传播威胁到总统和国家安全的言论。事实上,对于有人宣传左翼思想特别是共产主义思想,美国也将其纳入重点审查范围。一方面,美国利用社交网络,在西亚北非动荡和乌克兰事件等中扮演幕后推手角色;另一方面,美国国土安全部副部长卡琳·瓦格纳在国土安全和国防会议上表示,由于看到社交网络在西亚北非地区的动乱中起到了很大作用,该机构已开始起草监控推特和脸谱等社交网站的新法规。这表明,美国一方面试图通过网络意识形态渗透使“祸水东引”,另一方面又试图通过立法来保证祸水不被引到自家门口。事实也证明,对互联网内容进行相机管理,人为色彩严重,尺度把控很难,而通过立法来解决,就有了标准与依据。

“天下之事,不难于立法,而难于法之必行。”完善网络社会治理体系,还必须发挥制度的刚性约束作用,做到有法必依。要认真落实属地化管理和“谁主管谁负责”、“谁经营谁负责”的要求,把行政监管与行业自律、公众监督相结合,确保已有法律和规定能够落地。当前值得注意的倾向是,一些互联网商业门户网站,在市场竞争的压力下,为了实现利润最大化目的,无视社会责任与国家安全,对已有的网络法律法规,采取实用主义态度,对自己有利的就执行,对自己不利的就不执行。特别是,明明知道某些微博大V在肆意攻击党和政府,肆意丑化党史军史革命史,却因其拥有大量粉丝,因其能制造热点话题,带来点击量和微博活跃度,因此不但不按相关管理部门要求予以制止或纠正,相反却暗中加以支持和纵容。也有少数互联网管理官员,为了挣得所谓“清名”,对互联网意识形态斗争严峻性不敏感,对违反法规的现象睁一只眼闭一只眼。这种有法不依、执法不严、违法不究的短视行为,只会助长网络违法现象,扰乱网络意识形态频谱,破坏网络社会治理体系,必须坚决予以纠正。

三、加强网络社会管理,要处理好活力和有序的关系

习近平总书记曾在多个场合分析了活力和有序的辩证关系,指出社会治理是一门科学,管得太死,一潭死水不行;管得太松,暗流汹涌也不行。保障网络意识形态安全,加强网络社会治理,同样必须处理好活力和有序之间的关系。网络社会一个很大的特点是开放性与动态性。一方面,必须加强意识形态安全管理,使之呈现出有序发展的格局;但另一方面,又不能越界滥管,甚至扼杀互联网的活力和发展。

首先,应该根据不同情况进行分类管理。从网络思想舆论领域总体情况看,无非有三种内容:一是红色内容,宣传的是党和国家主流意识形态,呼应的是社会主义核心价值观,传播的是正能量;二是灰色内容,宣传的是非主流意识形态,对应的是多元利益诉求与各种社会思潮,但不直接威胁主流意识形态;三是黑色内容,宣扬的是西方敌对势力借以攻击我们党和国家基本制度的意识形态,放大制度缺陷和社会阴暗面,甚至制造传播谣言。针对三种不同内容,网络社会治理要采取不同对策。对红色内容,要积极加以扶持。对灰色内容,要在鼓励“百家争鸣、百花齐放”的前提下,积极加以引导。而对黑色内容,必须勇于用法律的武器,加强限制和管控;对其中蓄意造谣生事的,必须落地查人,依法惩处。

其次,要主动扩大主流意识形态网络活动空间。在管控反主流意识形态的同时,必须做大做强做活网络主流意识形态传播工作,以正面声音引领多元多样多变的网上舆论。这方面,党的意识形态工作者与管理部门一定要有危机意识。某种程度上看,一段时期以来,互联网上反主流意识形态言论之所以呈现泛滥趋势,是与我们党的意识形态工作者不懂网、不知网、不会网因而不触网有很大关系,与我们党的意识形态管理部门用传统的管理纸质媒体方式来管控新媒体的做法有很大关系。下一步,意识形态工作者必须主动作为,积极作为,学会用网,善于用网,用网民喜闻乐见的方式,宣传正面主张,彰显时代精神,引领道德风尚。管理部门要适应新媒体特点,一方面要不断压缩错误言论空间,另一方面要善于发现和放大社交网络中的“美丽网事”、“点滴感动”,推出“平凡英雄”,宣传“最美人物”,倡导“最美精神”,着力弘扬社会正气、培育文明新风,提升网络社会的活力与能量。

最后,要加强对网络正常民意表达的保护力度。网络与新媒体,作为一种现代传播工具,总体上在推动社会进步。我们开展网络意识形态斗争,最终目的是在维护网络安全基础上进一步推动网络社会发展繁荣。因此,本着“法无禁止即可”的法治精神,在遵守法规的前提下,一定要放活网络思想,善用网民热情,完善网络表达机制。特别是,不能以维护意识形态安全为由,对自发性的网络反腐、网络监督以及正常网络话题讨论进行打压。要相信我们的广大网民和人民群众是有辨别是非能力和维护正义的觉悟的,即使一时受了欺骗,一旦了解了真相必然会作出正确的判断,坚定正确的立场。我们共产党有这个气度,就是相信群众依靠群众,让群众自己在实践中教育自己、提高自己,成为网络的主人。对网上的一般性争论和模糊认识,还是要靠马克思主义真理的力量,靠深入细致的网络思想政治工作,靠群众的火眼金睛,用真理揭露谎言,让科学战胜谬误,还网络以清风正气,使网络清新起来。

四、要加强计算机系统的科研开发和技术创新,从根本上掌握主动权

网络安全防范很重要,但最核心的还是建设。目前我们所使用的计算机软硬件系统、网络技术标准和协议基本上都是引进的,尽管我们也在进行自主研发,一些周边设备和应用软件是自己制造的,但关键核心技术还没有取得很大突破,很多方面仍受制于人。例如,计算机操作系统的内部代码是不公开的,里面到底有什么名堂,是否留有后门和木马我们并不清楚。即使我们自己加上防火墙、保密机等,实际上只是内部防护,从某种意义上说,对外防护能力是有限的。就像一座房子,材料、架构、图纸都是别人的,而且是非公开的,房主光靠防盗门、防盗窗的安全效果是有限的。美国微软生产的Windows XP系统已于4月8日退役,而XP在我国的市场份额高达70%,有超过2亿台电脑仍然在使用XP系统。美国微软方面表示:如果继续使用XP,尽管电脑仍可工作,但它可能更容易面临安全风险和受到病毒的攻击。中国工程院院士倪光南表示:XP停止服务是一个“重大的信息安全事件”。很显然,我们的用户被“逼迫”升级到美国微软最新的系统,被美国微软的强盗意识“绑架”了。因此,为了从根本上增强网络信息安全,掌握主动权,我们应该加快国产软硬件系统替代的步伐,下大力气进行计算机系统和网络信息系统的科研开发与技术创新,创造发明出属于自己的系统,制定出符合自己利益的规则,才能从根本上提升国家信息安全的可靠保障。这个任务虽然难度大,而且需要的时间长,但这是绕不开的门坎,必须要攀登的台阶,这要从战略上认真规划,具体落实。

(作者系中国人民解放军国防大学教授、中将)

 

One thought on “Pay High Attention to Online Ideological Security

    […] not only traditional rubrics such as military affairs and critical infrastructure, but also “ideological security” and resistance against foreign infiltration. In order to be secure, the leadership believes that […]

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