“12th Five-Year” Development Plan for the Internet Sector

Table of contents

I, Development situation

(1) Internet use has developed swiftly

(2) Internet infrastructure capacity has been enhanced continuously

(3) Internet technology innovation capacity has been incessantly strengthened

(4) The beginnings of an Internet sector with international influence have been shaped

(5) A management structure for the Internet sector has been basically established

(6) The Internet has become an important engine and basic platform for economic and social development.

II, Development circumstances

(1) The position of strategic Internet infrastructure has become more prominent

(2) Internet use incessantly opens up and develops new aspirations

(3) Internet technology change and network evolution accelerates and moves forward

(4) The challenges of network and information security tend to become more severe

(5) Global Internet management strength incessantly expands

(6) Our country’s Internet is at an important juncture for innovation and upgrading

III, Guiding ideology, basic principles and development objectives

(1) Guiding ideology and basic principles

(2) Development objectives

IV, Development tasks

(1) Innovating and applying structures, fostering the development of new Internet business models

(2) Stimulating the integration of the two civilizations, completely supporting economic and social development

(3) Establishing a “Broadband China”, moving network infrastructure optimization and upgrading forward”

(4) Moving the whole arrangement forward, evolving towards the development of next-generation Internet

(5) Making breakthroughs in key technologies, ramming down core basic sectors

(6) Strengthening top-layer design, establishing advanced and complete Internet standard systems

(7) Perfecting supervision and management systems, forging a sincere Internet market environment abiding by the rules

(8) Strengthening systems and methods, strengthening basic Internet management

(9) Strengthening structure construction, upgrading network and information security guarantee capacity

V, Guarantee measures

(1) Perfecting and guaranteeing sector management legal and regulatory structures guaranteeing the healthy development of the Internet

(2) Strengthening Internet management systems and management capacity construction

(3) Establishing guiding mechanisms for healthy Internet development

(4) Strengthening policy support for Internet infrastructure construction

(5) Promoting and perfecting Internet development fiscal, financial and intellectual property rights policies

(6) Fostering and supporting small and medium Internet enterprise growth

(7) Strengthening the construction of Internet specialist talent structures

(8) Promoting and perfecting international Internet governance mechanisms

Preface

As one of the greatest inventions of humankind in the 20th Century, the Internet has progressively become a strategic infrastructure for the social development of humankind in the information age, it pushes forward a deep reform of ways of production and life, incessantly remoulds economic and social development models, and has become an important cornerstone for building an information society. The “12th Five-Year Plan” period is a key period for our country to completely realize a relatively well-off society, grasping the historical opportunity of the reform of technology business, completely upgrading our country’s Internet innovation and scientific development capacity, accelerating the deepening and dissemination of applications, will forcefully move deepening and integration of informatization and industrialization forward, and shape strong drivers for promoting the accelerated transformation of economic development methods, incessant flourishing of social progress and the persisting improvement in the people’s lives.

In order to implement the requirements of the Party Centre and State Council concerning Internet development and management, on the basis of the “Outline of the 12th Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development” and the “State Council Resolution concerning Accelerating, Fostering and Developing Strategic Burgeoning Industries”, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has organized the composition of the “’12th Five-Year’ Development Plan for the Internet Sector”, for use as guidance for the development and management of our country’s Internet sector in the next five years.

I, Development Situation

After many years of development, our country’s Internet has become an important component part of global Internet development. The Internet has completely penetrated into all areas of economy and society, has become a new platform and force for reform in production and construction, economy and trade, scientific and technological innovation, public service, cultural dissemination and life entertainment, and pushes our country towards an information society.

(1) Internet use has developed swiftly

The scale of Internet application expands rapidly. During the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, the number of netizens increased threefold, reaching 457 million people, the rate of dissemination rose to 34.3%, exceeding average world levels, among those, the number of urban netizens reached 332 million people, and the number of rural netizens reached 125 million people. The number of Internet websites grew from 694000 to 1.91 million, the number of web pages grew thirteen fold, reaching 60 billion, containing about 1800TB. Application and innovation pushes forward swiftly, mobile Internet, interactive media, network entertainment, electronic commerce, etc., have become the sectors that are developing the fastest, with the broadest influence during the “11th Five-Year Plan” period.

(2) Internet infrastructure capacity has been enhanced continuously

Our country has built Internet infrastructure on a super-large scale, the network leads to all cities and towns, and a network infrastructure with many high-performance backbone Internet connections and many kinds of broadband access has been formed. During the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, fixed broadband access terminals grew about threefold, reaching 188 million people, 3G network coverage covers the major part of cities and towns; backbone broadband networks have exceeded 30Tbps, international Internet exchange broadband speed grew sevenfold, exceeding 1Tbps, overseas broadband network POP points reached 40. Internet resource quantities rose substantially, by the year 2010, the total quantity of IPv.4 addresses reached 278 million, occupying the second place worldwide, the number of “.cn” registries is about 4.35 million, the Chinese-language top-level domain “.中国” has achieved global analysis, three basic domain name mirror servers have been brought in, network capacity has been effectively raised.

(3) Internet technology innovation capacity has been incessantly strengthened

The influence of technological standards has risen rapidly. Before 2005, our country was in the lead of completing or signing three RFCs, by the end of the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, this has increased to 46, including Internet routing, Internetworking, security and other core technological areas, and international influence has clearly strengthened. The next-generation Internet domain is progressing rapidly, and stage-type achievements have been obtained in aspects such as network construction, application trials and equipment industrialization. Research and development aimed at the new structure of next-generation Internet has steadily moved forward.

(4) The beginnings of an Internet Sector with international influence have been shaped

Our country’s Internet services have already formed a market of billions of Yuan, in 2010, the income scale of the whole sector exceeded 200 billion Yuan. In network gateways, instant communications, search engines, electronic commerce, network gaming and other areas, a certain international influence is now present, a number of enterprises entered into the front ranks of global Internet enterprise market values. Internet equipment production sectors have risen rapidly, not only satisfying domestic development requirements, but they have also realized overseas expansion, high-end router product have ascended to the front ranks of global markets.

(5) A management structure for the Internet sector has been basically established

The beginnings of a management structure with “responsibility according to the division of work, grasping together and managing jointly” have been shaped, a sector management structure has been basically established, and work mechanisms with coordination and cooperation of many management departments have been formed. The beginnings of a legal and regulatory framework for Internet sector management with the “Telecommunications Regulations” and the “Internet Information Service Management Rules” as basis have been formed, and the basis for management according to the law has been established in Internet market access, Internet and accounting, resource management, network and information security and other aspects. An Internet market management structure covering the three segments of before, during and after events, integrating law, administration, technology, economic means and sector self-discipline has been basically built. Daily supervision and service supervision and management mechanisms guaranteeing users’ rights and interests have been strengthened. The achievements of basic Internet management are clear, Internet resource management mechanisms have been shaped at two levels: ministerial and provincial, website filing and IP address filing and management have been implemented, domain name registration services have been standardized. Security management systems and technological methods have strengthened incessantly enterprise network information security responsibilities have been clarified, security protection, information circulation, emergency response management and other management systems have been established, the beginnings of a network and information security system have been formed.

Internet sector self-discipline and public supervision has incessantly strengthened, and the Chinese Internet Association established. Sector associations, enterprises, user groups and other corresponding sides have jointly formulated and implemented Internet sector normative and self-discipline pledges such as the “Chinese Internet Sector Self-Discipline Pledge”, the “Anti-Network Virus Self-Discipline Pact”, etc, the 12321 bad and junk network information reporting acceptance centre has been established. The broad netizens’ consciousness to use the network in a civilized manner and participate in supervision, etc,. has incessantly risen.

(6) The Internet has become an important engine and basic platform for economic and social development

The function of the Internet in economic development becomes clearer every day. In the industrial sphere, many industrial enterprises launch production and operation activities through the Internet to different extents, which promoted industrial transformation and upgrading. In the agricultural sphere, by 2010, nearly 20000 websites involving agricultures and more than 20000 town information service stations were set up, which have supported and served agricultural and rural development. In the trade sphere, the electronic commerce trade value of 2010 was 450 million Yuan, between 2007 and 2010,  network retail trade values on average grew at a speed of 5.7 times the growth speed of social consumption product retail. The Internet has created ever more opportunities for employment, in 2010, Internet service enterprises directly employed nearly 800.000 personnel, and more than a million people have realized employment through opening online stores. At the same time, the Internet has promoted the rise of government management and public service levels and has stimulated the reform and innovation of cultural dissemination and social interaction methods.

At the same time that our country’s Internet sector development and management have achieved remarkable achievements, problems and contradictions are also unceasingly prominent. First, the depth and breadth of application remain to be raised, differences between regions and towns are striking. Second, there is a large difference in the per capita broadband rate with international advanced levels, domestic Internet bottlenecks are still prominent. Third, Internet technology innovation capacity and production power are weak, and no breakthroughs have yet been made in operating systems, core chips and other key technology bottlenecks. Fourth, market activities urgently need standardization, market rules, sincerity and honesty systems and sector self-discipline still need to be perfected, users’ rights, interests and privacy protection remain to be strengthened. Fifth, network and information security problems are prominent, systems and means for safeguarding safe and reliable public network environments must be further completed. Sixth, laws and regulations are somewhat backward, basic management still must be strengthened, cross-departmental and cross-regional management mechanisms’ level of coordination and efficiency urgently need to be raised, sector management forces urgently need to be strengthened.

II, Development circumstances

(1) The position of strategic Internet infrastructure has become more prominent

The Internet still is one of the liveliest areas of global economic development, it incessantly creates new business models and new markets, and shapes new economic growth points. The Internet will even more broadly and deeply promote industrial upgrading, stimulate the basic transformation of economic operations and trade methods, improve social public services and innovate government management models. At the same time, the  global strategic positions revolving around the Internet are accelerating, international competition is intensifying, network space is becoming an important new territory after land, sea, airspace and space, guaranteeing national interests in the network space is becoming a new task. The main countries integrate it with their natural resource endowments and core superiorities, and successively roll out national Internet strategies and action plans, and accelerate the building of comprehensive national competitive superiorities organically integrating the real world with the network space.

(2) Internet use incessantly opens up and develops new aspirations

The mobilization, integration, platforming and other tendencies of the Internet will open up a new development phase of even deeper blending, even broader interaction and even higher intelligence. Modes of application incessantly expand, mobile broadband, multimedia, intelligent searching, etc.,  will unprecedently raise the scope of Internet application and information intelligence, social networks and large-scale interactive coordination will incessantly expand spaces for innovation and accelerate the pace of innovation. Application models incessantly reform, cloud computing will deeply transform computing models and information service models, ambient ubiquitous networks, high-speed Internet and intelligent processing technology development will expand the subjects of Internet from people to objects. the cross-platform integration shaped by Internet development will incessantly deepen, promoting the deep transformation of telecommunications, radio and television, software and other industries, it will   become fused and integrated with traditional industries and an even faster pace, and give birth to new business models and new markets.

(3) Internet technology change and network evolution accelerates and moves forward

The Internet flow rate grows at a high speed, requiring the accelerated upgrading of network carrying capacity. A deep change has occurred in network models, Internet application platforms represented by CDN, IDC, etc., have shaped new application industry, and is changing the distribution of the flow rate and facility structure of the Internet. The evolution of the next-generation Internet and the position of forward technological positions is accelerating, all countries have accelerated the evolution and transition to next-generation Internet with IPv6 as basis, with systematically resolving important problems such as expandability, security, quality, energy use and other major technologies, and vigorously launch key technology research concerning innovative network structures and setups. The new development opportunities for Internet resources are clear, IPv6 is bringing about a huge space for addresses, new common top-level domain names are marching towards opening up, Chinese-language domain names and other multilingual domain names are incessantly developing.

(4) The challenges of network and information security tend to become more severe

Information sources on the Internet are increasing in storage, information dissemination and comprehensive abilities are strengthening unprecedently, information content modes and interaction models are becoming more complex every day, facing severe challenges concerning managing harmful information. Represented by intelligent terminals and application stores, networks, system, terminal and application security problems are mutually interwoven, application-level and terminal network information security problems are becoming ever more prominent. Following network integration as well as the development of new technologies and new business models, networks themselves also more easily are subject to attack from inside or abroad. Cloud computing and other new business models may realize cross-regional and virtual service models, but also bring about security problems concerning large-scale data transfer across borders. Internet network modes, flow rate distribution and network structures are accelerating and evolving, the rise of application infrastructure puts forward new management challenges for Internet network security, interaction and connectivity, function quality, etc.

(5) Global Internet management strength incessantly expands

The high-speed innovation in response to the Internet is incessantly integrating with realizing world management, international society is vigorously exploring management methods to suit their own countries, and on the basis of incessantly strengthening the construction of the legal system environment, are strengthening policy restructuring and supervision and management innovation aimed at network and information security, individual privacy, protection of minors and intellectual property rights and other prominent problems, they expand management strength and cross-regional coordination, they strengthen the comprehensive utilization of economic, technological, legal and other measures, forcefully promote  sector self-regulation and mass supervision, build all-inclusive socialized governance structures, strive to forge a safe, healthy, sincere and honest network environment. At the same time, international society is incessantly strengthening international coordination in Internet management, and through international multilateral and bilateral mechanisms, are accelerating and exploring the shaping of international rules for the network space, in order to respond to the challenges of a network space that is becoming more complex every day.

(6) Our country’s Internet is at an important juncture for innovation and upgrading

The “12th Five-Year Plan” period is an important period of opportunity for our country’s economic and social development, broadening consumption demand, vigorously and reliably moving forward urbanization and developing modern industrial structures, have created powerful demand drivers and huge market space for the development of the Internet, the Internet itself is also facing the development responsibilities of incessantly perfecting infrastructure, letting service and business models flourish and deepening application dissemination. At present, the global internet is in a period of rapid reform, all countries face similar opportunities and challenges in next-generation Internet, Internet of Things, cloud computing, mobile Internet, three-network integration and other technological and operational reform, the differences in the development basis are not large, this has provided rare and historical opportunities for Internet development in a new period, accelerating innovation in international competition and incessantly striding forward.

Following the broadening of the application sphere and the increase of application audiences, our country’s international influence in the Internet sphere is expanding every day, and the basic conditions to develop to higher levels of technology, industry and service are in place. Facing the situation that international competition grows more intense every day, and confronting the pace of development and innovation of the Internet and the pressure of expanding security, we must actively adapt to the urgent requirements of economic and social development, grasp the tendencies and rules of Internet technology and industry reform, strive to gain superiority in a new round of Internet technology and industry reform, and establish a form basis for our country’s acceleration of development method transformation, and striding forward with the information society.

III, Guiding ideology, basic principles and development objectives

(1) Guiding ideology and basic principles

With Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important “Three Represents” thought as guidance, deeply implementing the scientific development view, closely revolving around the requirements of accelerating the transformation of economic development methods and completely constructing a relatively well-off society, with supporting economic and social development as starting point, with raising indigenous development capacity as main direction of attack, with guaranteeing network and information security and safeguarding the rights and interests of consumers as basic requirement, with implementing scientific management and optimizing development environments as basic guarantees, striving to ram down basic networks, striving to move technological, business and commercial model and management mechanism innovation forward, expanding dissemination, deepening application, incessantly raising Internet development levels, integrating service informatization with deep industrialization, establishing a firm basis for constructing next-generation national information infrastructure and completely raising informatization levels.

Persisting in deepening the principle of letting dissemination and application pull. Striving to move Internet dissemination forward, strengthening town, country and regional coordination, accelerating the deep application of the Internet in all areas of the national economy and society, stimulating the integration of informatization with industrialization.

Persisting in the principle of completely raising innovation and development. Striving to move Internet technology, business and commercial model indigenous innovation forward, revolving around key segments such as application service, network equipment, terminal platforms, etc., to capture and grasp core technologies, stimulate the mutual stimulation of application innovation, network evolution, technological breakthroughs and industrial development, and realize the complete rise of Internet application, technology and industry.

Persisting in the principle of scientific management and optimizing environments. Striving to strengthen legal system construction, deepening management mechanism and management model innovation, strengthening technological methods and standardizing administrative law enforcement, giving rein to the function of sector organizations and the social masses. Standardizing market competition, implementing enterprise responsibility, optimizing a sincere and honest environment, realistically protecting the lawful rights and interests of users and all other sorts of groups, building comprehensive management structures and development environment for government management according to the law, orderly sector self-discipline, effective social supervision and powerful technological guarantees.

Persisting in the principle of guaranteeing network and information security. Adapting to technological evolution and application development, striving to move the construction of network and information security guarantee structures forward, incessantly strengthening control capacity and defence initiative capacity over key resources, basic networks, core systems and other areas, realizing safe development.

(2) Development objectives

By the end of the “12th Five-Year Plan” period, establishing a network environment with high-speed broadband, broad dissemination, that is safe and reliable, trustworthy and manageable, green and healthy, shaping a fair and competitive, honest and law-abiding, innovative and vivid market environment, realizing a complete rise from application innovation and network evolution to technological breakthroughs and industrial upgrading, making the function in transforming economic development method and serving society and the people’s livelihood even more notable:

1. Continuing to raise contributions to economy and society. Making the function of the Internet in transforming economic development methods and stimulating structural adjustment even more prominent, based on the coordinated research, development and design, ordering, production, retail and other broad applications, network finance and electronic commerce dissemination is to deepen, with electronic commerce trading values to reach 18 trillion Yuan by 2015. The basic function of the Internet in social development and serving the people’s livelihood is to become more prominent, with Internet enterprises directly creating employment for more than 23 million people by 2015, and driving an even larger scale of employment increase, based on the clear rise of public management and social services of the Internet.

2. Internet application service dissemination is to rise. Netizen quantities to exceed 800 million people, dissemination rates to exceed 57%, and in particular, rural netizen quantities to exceed 200 million. Network information resources to increase substantially, webpage scale to exceed 400 billion, per capita occupying a proportion of 5.4 times. Government, enterprise and undertaking work units, schools, medical and hygiene organs and the whole society is to access the Internet. Innovative applications and creative brands to become a main force in leading our country’s Internet development, search, mobile Internet, cloud computing, Internet of Things and other services’ scale and international influence to clearly rise.

3. Realizing a leap in access capacity. Fixed Internet broadband access terminals are to exceed 370 million, urban household broadband access capacity is to basically reach more than 20 Mbps, at the same time satisfying at least two high-definition television lines and one high-speed Internet connection; rural household broadband access capacity is to basically reach more than 4Mbps, at the same time satisfying at least one standard definition television and one high-speed Internet connection. Broadband is to cover governments, schools, libraries, medical and hygiene organs, community centres and other public-interest type organs and airports, train stations and other public infrastructure, administrative villages are to be basically connected to broadband, realizing an optical fibre household connection coverage of 200 million households.

4. Upgrading and optimizing network infrastructure. Backbone network general broadband is to increase by 10 times in comparison with the end of the “11th Five-Year Plan” period, connection quality between networks is to reach international advanced levels, international Internet entry and exit broadband is to increase to 6.5Tbps, backbone network overseas POP points are to increase to 100. The backbone network is to completely support IPv5, main commercial websites, education and scientific research websites and government websites are to support IPv6. IDC space arrangement is to be further optimized, realizing technological upgrading, after transformation, striving to reduce the PUE value of IDC to two or lower, newly constructed large-scale computing data centres’ PUE value is to be 1.5 of lower. High-speed reliable CDN is to cover the entire country.

5. The Internet industry is to step up to a new level. During the “12th Five-Year Plan” period, Internet service industry income is to grow in excess of 25% annually, breaking through the 600 billion Yuan mark. Burgeoning services are to become a main force for growth, production-type Internet services are to grow notably. Shaping a batch of backbone Internet enterprises grasping core technologies and having international influence, as well as  mass of small and mid-size enterprises with innovative vitality and clear characteristics. Breakthroughs are to be obtained in mobile intelligent terminal operation systems, cloud computing, burgeoning Internet application technology and other aspects, Internet core network equipment, intelligent terminals, basic software, core chips and other industries’ indigenous development capacity is to clearly rise. Internet business and application standardization structures are to be preliminarily established, next-generation Internet standard structures are to be progressively finalized, cloud computing, IDC and other standards are to see realistic progress, Chinese domain names, domain name security analysis and other resource category standards are to see breakthroughs, network information security standards are to satisfy the requirements for safe operation, international standard influence is to clearly strengthen.

6. Market competition environments are to be sincere, honest and orderly. Internet market structures are to be optimized, market activities are to become even more standardized, sector self-discipline is to become more widespread and strengthened, law-abiding activities and coordinated resolution mechanisms are to be completely established, market order is to clearly improve. Users’ rights to know, rights to choose, rights to privacy, etc., are to be progressively guaranteed, user satisfaction levels are to clearly rise. Internet market systems with coordination and joint gains, positive competition, standardization and order are to be basically formed, industrial chain integration and coordination relations are to become even more rationalized and smooth.

7. Clearly strengthening development guarantee capacity. Internet sector management structures and legal environment suited to development are to be perfected faster, basic management capacity is to rise clearly. Network and information security guarantee structures adapted to technological innovation are to be basically established, secure and reliable network environment construction is to see realistic breakthroughs, security guarantee capacity is to rise in step with development of the Internet and the informatization of the national economy and society

IV, Development tasks

(1) Innovating and applying structures, fostering the development of new Internet business models

Completely moving Internet application innovation forward. Strengthening guidance and standardization of applied innovation, forcefully developing productive and livelihood-related Internet application innovation services, supporting healthy and upward digital content services. Building Internet application innovation ecology structures, optimizing development structures with interaction between basic telecommunications operation, Internet services, content provision and software development enterprises, strengthening intellectual property rights protection and services for small and mid-size enterprises and especially innovative enterprises. Completely deepening the use of Internet information resources, raising information integration and excavating capacity under the presupposition of guaranteeing security and user privacy, fostering and standardizing new applications and new markets based on information and data. Making breakthroughs in intelligent search, new-generation web and browsers, multimedia and other key technology related to Internet application, strengthening the research, development and dissemination of Internet application basic platforms, intelligent terminal operating systems, etc., building application integration and business innovation structures based on Internet capacity openness.

BOX 1: Internet application innovation model projects

New Internet application models: establishing Internet application innovation incubation bases, focusing on facing the production and public service spheres, launching network audiovisuals in education and training, healthcare and hygiene, market management, food safety, environmental inspection, tourism services, intelligent traffic, commercial marketing, finance and accounting services, etc., strengthening reality and other new application models.

Internet application basic technology innovation: organizing and moving forward research and development breakthroughs and application platform construction in new-generation Internet web application technology, intelligent search technology, etc.

Moving comprehensive breakthroughs in mobile Internet forward. Vigorously promoting coordination in industry chains, building mobile Internet ecology structures. Accelerating the coordinated research and development of mobile intelligent terminal operating system platforms, moving breakthroughs forward in operating systems, middleware, mobile browsers, core chips, intelligent terminals and other spheres. Promoting mobile Internet application development, accelerating standardization, optimizing and shaping high-level application platforms commonly used in the sector, encouraging opening up third-party application development procedure interfaces and shaping cross-terminal and platform application stores, promoting application innovation with large-scale coordination.

BOX 2: Mobile Internet innovation application model projects

Promoting the establishment of Internet industry technology alliances. Organizing research and development of mobile intelligent terminal operating systems, mobile browsers, common web operating environments and other application platforms, forging industry ecology systems linking up  operating systems, middleware, application stores, complete units and core chips, realizing scale development of intelligent mobile phones and mobile Internet application services.

Moving the commercialized development of cloud computing services forward. Deploying and launching commercial cloud computing application models, guiding and supporting enterprises, etc., in opening up their own computer storage and other resources and service management capacity, building common cloud computing service platforms, stimulating cloud computing business innovation and commercial model innovation, moving publicly-owned cloud commercialization development forward.

Promoting applications integrating object interaction and the Internet. Integrating Internet framework optimization and mobile Internet development, comprehensively planning coordinated sensor networks and other sensitive infrastructure and intelligent processing centres and other application infrastructure, shaping a composite development structure relying on the Internet. Integrating the Internet with burgeoning object interaction services, launching advanced applications in spheres such as industry, productive services, important infrastructure, urban management, traffic and transportation, etc. Revolving around the public requirements of applications, establishing technology, trial, resource management, information and other public service platforms integrating the Internet with object interaction.

BOX 3: Cloud computing application model projects

Key cloud computing technology and industrialization is to be moved forward: focusing on breaking through in super-large scale cloud computing operating systems, virtualization, high-speed networks and other key technologies, organizing the adoption of cloud computing technology to launch public service application models, moving cloud computing industry linkages forward. Formulating key technology standards, service and security management norms for cloud computing, vigorously participating in international standard formulation.

Cloud computing application standards: vigorously and orderly launching safe, high-efficiency and green Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) standards, supporting application Platform as a Service (PaaS), vigorously utilizing cloud computing technology to develop Software as a Service (SaaS) facing small and mid-size enterprises. Promoting cloud computing application in electronic government services and education, healthcare, traffic and other public services.

Cloud computing security protection: launching cloud security technology research and development, making breakthroughs in cloud computing key security technology. Researching and formulating cloud computing security management systems.

Vigorously promoting the accelerated development of electronic commerce, constructing third-party electronic commerce platforms, promoting mobile electronic commerce application on a large scale with mobile Internet and mobile payment development as the critical juncture, forcefully developing electronic commerce services facing small and mid-size enterprises, perfecting payment structures and sincerity structures, and other supporting environments.

(2) Stimulating the integration of the two civilizations, completely supporting economic and social development

Moving the broad application and comprehensive integration of Internet, industrial and agricultural spheres forward. Integrating the Internet with research, development and design, building networked and coordinate research, development and design structures, letting the Internet integrate with enterprise sales and production; integrating the internet with enterprise production and sales management, establishing high-efficiency and coordinated common supply management, sales management and logistics structures, realizing market demand intelligent, sensitive and dynamic responses. Forcefully moving the application of the Internet in agriculture and the countryside forward, developing comprehensive Internet information services aimed at third parties.

Completely applying the Internet to move the modernization of the service sector forward. Vigorously promoting the broadened dissemination and deepened application of the Internet in the service sectors forward, promoting industrialization transformation and networked operation of finance, trade, logistics, tourism and other industrial spheres, extending service industry chains, clearly raising service levels and added value, promoting the high-end development of the service sector and optimization and upgrading of the modern service sector

BOX 4: Internet productive application model projects

Internet application models in the manufacturing industry: focusing on launching coordinated Internet research, development and design, networked flexible ordering, coordinated industrial chain electronic commerce, intelligent supply chain management and other models and trials.

Public information service models facing enterprises: forging public service platforms based on the Internet such as information consulting, intellectual property right operation and transformation, third-party electronic commerce, etc.

Perfecting Internet social information service platforms. Strengthening the application of the Internet in education, healthcare, social security, population and other areas, raising public service efficiency and capacity. Perfecting government portal websites and public service systems based on the Internet, supporting the government in constructing online new technologies and new work methods for public service and government-people interaction, promoting the upgrading of government public service and management capacity in the Internet age. Perfecting public information service systems based on the Internet.

Stimulating social employment and business start-ups. With electronic commerce, network creation, application procedures and burgeoning Internet services as focus points, incessantly expanding into new spheres, developing new business models, fostering new hotspots, creating employment opportunities, lowering thresholds for start-ups, stimulating higher education graduates to start up businesses or become employed, bringing in new urban employees, assisting rural employees to realize “leaving the land but not the village”.

(3) Establishing a “Broadband China”, moving network infrastructure optimization and upgrading forward”

Accelerating network access broadband construction. Implementing the Broadband China strategy, comprehensively utilizing optical fibre access, broadband wireless and mobile telecommunications and other means to accelerate the process of network broadband upgrading. In urban areas, moving optical fibre into buildings and into homes, moving optical fibre network extension into towns and administrative villages forward. Forcefully developing a new generation of mobile communications, accelerating and raising 3G coverage scope and quality, comprehensively planning and moving forward LTE commerce, establishing broadband wireless cities, progressively raising network coverage and application dissemination for the countryside, schools, hospitals and other public organs and special groups, reducing the digital divide.

Optimizing and adjusting the overall domestic Internet structure. Promoting the transformation of direct local linkage trials and long-distance interconnection methods, reliably structuring backbone direct linkage points, reducing the revolving flow rate between networks. Exploring exchange centre development models, completely transforming exchange centres, fully giving rein to the flow rate pathfinding function of exchange centres. Guaranteeing timely capacity enlargement of broadband between Internet networks, strictly guaranteeing broadband use and signifier indicators between networks, at the same time as raising telecommunications quality between networks, strengthening network security. Comprehensively planning and coordinating operational and commercial Internet network constructing, coordinating the adjustment of structures between Internet networks, guiding their constructing within the network.

Perfecting international Internet network distribution. Continuing to raise international entry and exit port capacity. On the basis of the needs of the development of work, adding backbone network overseas POP points in countries and regions meeting conditions, expanding international business’s non-stop scope. Timely constructing international data centres, shaping an even broader network connection and work coverage on a global scale. Strengthening maritime cable construction and use rights purchasing, strengthening landing maritime cables, perfecting international land cable construction. Comprehensively planning and coordinating operational enterprises’ routing plans and overseas POP point distribution, strengthening security and protection.

Accelerating the construction of Internet application infrastructure. Comprehensively considering network frameworks, market requirements, the complete environment, geography and industry, information security and other factors, strengthening technology standards and industrial policy guidance, optimizing large-scale data centre construction and distribution, guaranteeing high-speed network connections between large-scale data centres. Completely launching IDC transformation with green energy reduction and cloud computing technology as basis, raising data centres’ efficiency and resource utilization ratios, raising intensified management and operation levels. Comprehensively planning and moving forward CDN construction, guiding and supporting enterprises meeting conditions to launch CDN construction and operation, expanding network content, coverage scope and service capacity, vigorously perfecting safety management systems and technological means, progressively shaping a CDN network with advanced technology and reliable security, raising the support capacity of the Internet for multimedia and large broadband application.

BOX 5: Internet infrastructure optimization and upgrading projects

Network broadband upgrading: supporting newly-constructed urban residential communities and commercial buildings in installing optical fibre networks and the transformation of optical fibre entering households in already build residential communities. Organizing and launching broadband construction in governments, schools, hospitals and other public service organs.

Broadband wireless access upgrading: vigorously promoting wireless city construction, upgrading the wireless broadband data access capacity of fixed and mobile telecommunications networks, comprehensively utilizing satellite and wireless technology means to upgrade network coverage in the countryside and remote border regions.

Data centre transformation and upgrading: fully utilizing cloud computing, green energy savings and other advanced technology, comprehensively considering buildings, venues, cable distribution, networks, electricity supply, cooling and other factors, conducting technological transformation and upgrading of large-scale data centres.

Internet network supervision platforms: building network supervision and management platforms for quality supervision between Internet networks, etc, realizing real-time supervision and control over telecommunications quality between Internet networks.

(4) Moving the whole arrangement forward, evolving towards the development of next-generation Internet

Moving forward the smooth transition of the Internet towards IPv6. Under the presupposition of considering network and information security, formulating national-level plans to move forward, accelerating the commercial deployment of IPv6. Moving network transformation forward with focus cities and focus networks as forerunners, moving application migration forward with focus commercial websites and government websites as forerunners, developing characteristic applications, vigorously promoting the support of fixed terminals and mobile intelligent terminals for IPv6, completely deploying IPv6 security protection system in networks. Accelerating the construction of IPv6 industry chains, shaping network facility construction, software development, operational service, applications and other innovative chains and large-scale industries.

Accelerating the distribution of Internet technology research and development forward positions facing the future. Accelerating the construction of an innovative and experimental environment supporting scientific research, technological research and industrialization in the areas of Internet networks and applications, with resolving problems such as future network expandability, security, quality, energy consumption, etc., as focus points, launching future Internet theory research and tackling of key technological issues, obtaining breakthroughs in innovative structures and frameworks, and major key technologies, timely launching application demonstrations.

BOX6: projects to move commercial IPv6 forward

Promoting the deployment of commercial IPv6, implementing the transition and transformation of Internet networks to IPv6, organizing experiments, demonstrations and dissemination concerning interconnection between IPv4 and IPv6. Moving the upgrading to IPv6 of government, education and commercial websites and IDC forward. With mobile Internet, Internet of Things, etc., as starting points, launching IPv6 application demonstrations. Constructing IPv6 basic network resource statistics analysis platforms. Construction network and IDC system IPv6 monitoring and authentication mechanisms.

(5) Making breakthroughs in key technologies, ramming down core basic sectors

Seizing the opportunity to break through in high-end software and basic software related to the Internet. Focusing on supporting mobile intelligent terminal operating systems, networked operating system platforms, intelligent storage data resource centre management systems and other burgeoning networked basic software research and industrialization, supporting research, development and industrialization of key application software and information technology support software aimed at burgeoning Internet business models.

Supporting the industrialized development of high-end servers and core network equipment, etc. Researching and developing high-concurrency, high-capacity, highly reliable, and high-error tolerant high-end servers, as well as superservers with high processing capacity, low costs and low energy consumption; researching and developing high-end routers with low energy consumption, large-capacity concentrated backbone core router, virtualized programmable routers and other core network equipment. Strengthening core chip design and production capacity, researching and developing high-end routing chips with low energy consumption, high speed access equipment chips, as well as supporting intelligent terminal chips for the next-generation network and other core components.

(6) Strengthening top-layer design, establishing advanced and complete Internet standard systems

Launching research and development on IP address and domain name resource management, domain name security technology standards, strengthening the standardized development of Chinese-language domain name and address reliability, domain name security analysis and other spheres. Establishing Internet business application-type standard systems. Perfecting network and equipment standard structures with the IPv6 transition and security as focus points, advancing the distribution of innovative network structure and setup standards research. Accelerating cloud computing standard structure design and focus areas’ standard formulation. Revolving around IDC, CDN and other application infrastructure transformation and distribution, accelerating corresponding standard system revision. With framework structures and goods coding, etc., as focus point, establishing Internet of Things standard structures. Strengthening network and information security standard research and formulation, perfecting a series of security protection standards, strengthening business application security standard research. Encouraging enterprises to vigorously participate in international standardization activities, deepening and expanding cooperation with main international standardization organizations, forcefully promoting the internationalization of domestic standards, raising the influence and power of discourse in international standards.

(7) Perfecting supervision and management systems, forging a sincere Internet market environment abiding by the rules

Exploring the establishment of horizontally and vertically categorized Internet business supervision and management models. Comprehensively considering the development phase, properties and characteristics, market scale and other factors to explore horizontally and vertically categorized management models for Internet business. Strengthening the coordination between Internet telecommunications business market access and news, culture, publishing, audiovisual programming, education, healthcare, medicine, medical apparatus and other specialized ex ante or ex post examination and approval, shaping a management situation with specialized content management linking to Internet telecommunications business management, and with effective coordination.

Strengthening market supervision and management structure construction. Progressively establishing Internet service enterprise credit recording, appraisal and announcement mechanisms. Perfecting market rules and dispute mediation and settlement mechanisms, standardizing Internet information service activities, rationalizing the upstream and downstream relationships in industry chains, safeguarding a fair, just and orderly market order. Perfecting a market supervision and monitoring structure covering all levels of applications, access, network infrastructure and resources, constructing and perfecting business market comprehensive management systems, strengthening resource sharing and high-efficiency connections between systems, progressively establishing horizontally classified early warning mechanisms for the Internet market.

Vigorously initiating sector self-discipline. Vigorously giving rein to the function of sector associations, strengthening sector self-discipline mechanisms, perfecting sector norms and self-discipline pacts, strengthening professional norm propaganda. Supervising enterprises to strengthen self-discipline, deferring to commercial virtue, realistically implementing social responsibilities and social duties, actively standardizing competition and other market activities, strengthening internal management and self-discipline inspection, consciously resisting pushing out or slandering competitors, encroaching consumers’ interests and other bad behaviour. Vigorously guiding consumers to surf the net in a civilized manner, and strengthen netizens’ self-discipline. Further completing reporting channels, encouraging social and public morals to vigorously supervise  and report harmful information dissemination on the Internet and bad competitive behaviour in markets.

Establishing and completing Internet user right and interest protection mechanisms. Establishing and completing Internet user right and interest protection coordination and processing mechanisms. Perfecting Internet service quality and service norm standard questions aimed at users’ rights and interests. Accelerating the extension of existing telecommunications service norm structures, service monitoring and supervision and inspection mechanisms into Internet services, perfecting Internet user complaint and appeal processing procedures and work mechanisms covering three aspects: government, enterprises and society. Strengthening individual user data protection, clarifying Internet service providers’ duty to protect users’ individual information, formulating user data protection standards, progressively establishing independent third-party evaluation and authentication systems.

(8) Strengthening systems and methods, strengthening basic Internet management

Perfecting Internet resource development and management systems. Further promoting IP address applications, encouraging the dissemination of addresses using IPv6. Optimizing domain name industry development policies, standardizing and guiding the healthy and orderly development of the domain name industry. Promoting and establishing domain name registration and use honesty systems, on the basis of guaranteeing security, promoting the global development of “.cn”, “.中国” and other national top-level domains, raising the international influence of Chinese language domain names and Chinese language websites. Establishing and completing IP address management systems, comprehensively planning the application, use and coordination of IP address resources. Perfecting domain name registration management methods and registration procedures, strengthening the enterprise responsibility of domain name registration management organs and domain name registration service organs, attacking acts violating laws and regulations, standardizing market order. Exploring the establishment of domain name analysis service standards and market management systems, raiding domain name analysis service quality.

Strengthening technological means research and technological platform construction. Constructing and perfecting management structures for website filing, IP addresses, domain names and other basic Internet resources, further raising IP address allocation and usage filing rate accuracy and the registration of real-name domain names. Expanding research concerning domain name systems and their security technology, guaranteeing domain name registration data and domain name analysis system security.

(9) Strengthening structure construction, upgrading network and information security guarantee capacity

Strengthening network and information security management. Deeply moving security rank protection, security monitoring, risk appraisal and other basic work forward, strengthening security guarantees for Internet infrastructures such as IDC, domain name structures, etc. expanding network security monitoring, redundancy, back-up and other security infrastructure construction strength, strengthening supervision and management work overvalue-added telecommunications business, mobile Internet and intelligent terminal network security. Exploring the establishment of new Internet technology and new business information security evaluation structure, implementing network information security guarantee measures, raiding security protection and processing capacity. Further strengthening the localized construction of network information security technology supervision and management, strengthening enterprise network and information security responsibility and implementation.

Strengthening Internet network security emergency management capacity. Formulating and implementing domain name service organ and website classification standards, starting from completing work mechanisms, implementing and perfecting advance work cases and other aspects, raising major activity guarantee and sudden incident emergency response handling capacity. Persisting in pushing forward public network environment governance, pushing forward the rocking horse and vampire special attack and regularized governance, attacking computer and mobile telephone virus interest chains, organizing and launching joint network security emergency response drills, strengthening important network information security monitoring.

Raising Internet equipment security control levels. Persisting in simultaneously developing basic software and hardware products, and special security products, raising key equipment controllability levels, supporting security technology product research and development, perfecting information security industry chains, developing and standardizing network and information security service sectors.

Fostering network information security environments and cultures. Propagating and implementing security responsibility, strengthening a consciousness of security at all levels of government, enterprise and users, raising security protection capacity, and through sector self-regulation, social supervision and many other methods, fostering a security environment and culture.

V, Guarantee measures

(1) Perfecting and guaranteeing sector management legal and regulatory structures guaranteeing the healthy development of the Internet

Accelerating and perfecting corresponding laws and regulations, vigorously creating complete legal environments for Internet sector development and management. Promoting user information protection, intellectual property rights protection, network real-name and data protection and other corresponding legislation, establishing secure and reliable on-line environments, protecting Internet technology and professional innovation, creating legal environments beneficial to sustained healthy development. Strengthening network and information security legislation, revising the “Internet Information Service Management Rules” as well as management rules for domain names, IP addresses and other Internet resources, standardizing Internet information service activities. Strengthening sector management in Internet enterprises’ going to the market at home and abroad, foreign capital, mergers, acquisitions and other processes.

(2) Strengthening Internet management systems and management capacity construction

Promoting and perfecting cross-departmental and cross-regional coordination work mechanisms. According to the division of work and responsibilities, strictly implementing and launching websites’ ex ante and ex post examination and approval systems. Integrating the new situations of Internet development, incessantly perfecting coordination and cooperation work mechanisms between departments, perfecting cross-regional joint management procedures, raising management efficiency, strengthening major and sudden incident response and coordinated handling capacity.

Accelerating and substantiating Internet sector management forces and resource deployment. Strengthening Internet sector management organ construction, promoting Internet sector management force extension. Expanding personnel and financial input, raising specialization levels, strengthening Internet sector management.

Raising Internet sector management informatization levels. Strengthening far-sighted research and follow-up of Internet development rules, timely raising technology methods. Expanding the construction of all systems of sector management, strengthening high-efficiency linkages and resource sharing between systems, raising management efficiency.

(3) Establishing guiding mechanisms for healthy Internet development

Guiding and optimizing Internet industry structuring. According to the scope of incentives determined in the “Industrial Structural Adjustment Guidance Catalogue”, guiding social resources to enter into focus development spheres of the Internet, promoting the accelerated development of new Internet industries and especially productive Internet services. On the basis of the needs of industrial development, revising industrial catalogues at a suitable time, adjusting and expanding Internet equipment products and application services including incentives. Establishing positive interactions for Internet enterprises, electronic production enterprises and software enterprises, promoting the comprehensive upgrading of industry chains.

Promoting cross-departmental and cross-sector long-term strategic cooperation. In productive service spheres and those related to the livelihood of the people, such as safe production, quality supervision, education and healthcare, environmental protection, communications and social management, etc., strengthening deep cooperation between departments and sectors, optimizing Internet sector service orientations and structures.

Strengthening Internet sector development information publication. Regularly publishing focus business monitoring information, industrial development white papers and development guidance reports, providing the situations of technological evolution, market competition, application demand and other aspects, guiding innovation directions and market resource deployment.

(4) Strengthening policy support for Internet infrastructure construction

Through existing financial channels, guiding the accelerated development of high-speed broadband access networks, next-generation Internet and other infrastructure, exploring to move the construction of public-interest type organs and optical fibre broadband construction forward in Western regions, the broad countryside, ethnic minority regions and communities through value-added subsidies and other methods. Strengthening coordination and linking mechanisms for Internet infrastructure construction with urban construction and other departments, guaranteeing the simultaneous planning and simultaneous construction of optical fibre pipes in urban construction, broadband access networks and other urban infrastructure; strengthening the domestic cross-departmental coordination and international coordination and cooperation concerning maritime and land cable and other international telecommunications infrastructure. Rolling out guiding opinions for framework adjustment between Internet networks, adjusting backbone Internet interconnection accounting policies at suitable times, optimizing structures between Internet networks, establishing large-capacity long-term mechanisms between networks, perfecting telecommunications quality monitoring mechanisms and means between Internet networks. Strengthening key domain name system back-ups and emergency response facility construction.

(5) Promoting and perfecting Internet development fiscal, financial and intellectual property rights policies

Promoting and expanding financial and fiscal support for the development of focus Internet spheres. Comprehensively utilizing all sorts of special funds, expanding financial input into focus Internet development spheres. Expanding support for technology research and development concerning mobile Internet, next-generation Internet, cloud computing, Internet of Things and other spheres in the drafting and implementation of major national programmes, science and technology support plans, and promoting industrialization. Supporting Internet enterprises to enjoy financial, fiscal and other preferential policies according to relevant regulations of central and local governments.

Perfecting Internet investment environments. Vigorously moving patent and other intellectual property right pledge funding trials forward, promoting investment guarantee mechanisms to provide lending guarantees for the Internet sector, moving trials for Internet enterprises launching concentrated bond issuance, joint lending, etc. forward. Supporting Internet enterprises to issue company bonds, short-term financial bonds, etc. Promoting and perfecting domestic capital market environments, stimulating risk capital mechanism construction, encouraging publicly traded top-level Internet enterprises to return.

Strengthening intellectual property rights protection. Promoting the establishment of an Internet enterprise intellectual property rights innovation structure with enterprises as subjects, the market as guidance, integrating industry, learning and research. Stimulating and perfecting intellectual property rights value appraisal and profit sharing mechanisms, encouraging enterprises’ intellectual property rights transformation and utilization, vigorously coordinating attacks on acts of infringement and piracy in the Internet sphere. Raiding Internet enterprises’ capacity to respond to intellectual property rights disputes, guiding enterprises to respond to infringement acts and lawsuits involving intellectual property rights according to the law.

(6) Fostering and supporting small and medium Internet enterprise growth

Improving start-up environments, fostering start-up subjects, strengthening start-up services, constructing start-up bases, supporting small and mid-size Internet enterprise establishment and development. Strengthening the service mentality of management departments, raising service efficiency, strengthening service at the same time as standardizing the healthy development of small and mid-size Internet enterprises. Integrating the “Small and Mid-Size Enterprise Interim Standard Regulations”, bringing small and mid-size enterprises meeting conditions and micro-enterprises explicitly into existing State policy structures, letting them enjoy fiscal, financial and other corresponding support according to the law. In all central financial support programme for small and mid-size enterprise development, granting vigorous support to small and mid-size Internet enterprises meeting conditions. Exploring special support policies with the market as guidance, adapted to small and mid-size Internet enterprise development.

(7) Strengthening the construction of Internet specialist talent structures

Guiding higher education institutes to integrate with Internet burgeoning business model development consideration specialization establishment and adjustment, encouraging them to foster Internet talents through cooperative study organization, special short-term training for professionals, continuous education and many other sorts of methods, establishing and perfecting talent training models with cooperation of industry, learning and research. Pushing forward and raising the proportion of enterprise professional training expenses, encouraging Internet enterprises to expand professional training input strength. Strengthening innovative talent attraction and utilization, jointly exploring special Internet talent tax revenue, residence permit, housing and other complementary enforcement mechanisms with relevant departments. Promoting and perfecting technology shareholding, stock options and other intellectual capitalization incentive mechanisms. Utilizing State plans to attract high-level overseas talents as a platform to vigorously attract high-end talents needed for Internet development. Completing Internet talent appraisal systems, strengthening scientific talent management.

(8) Promoting and perfecting international Internet governance mechanisms

Bringing Internet development into the larger State economic development and foreign-related exchange work picture, progressively establishing mechanisms with participation from forces of all sides of society, vigorously participating in the activities of the United Nations, regional and international organizations, fully utilizing multilateral and bilateral management to launch multi-level and multi-channel dialogues and exchanges. Strengthening international cooperation in network space rules, resources, security, etc., deeply participating in discussions and negotiations of international society concerning common Internet policies and rules, incessantly promoting the establishment of multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet basic resource allocation structures, vigorously moving international cooperation between governments and non-governments in the network security sphere forward, stimulating the coordinated handling of cross-national network security incidents.

Appendix: List of Terms

TB Tera bit

3G 3rd-Generation

Tbps Tera bit Per second

POP Point of Presence

IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4

RFC Request for Comment

IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6

IP Internet Protocol

CDN Content Delivery Network

IDC Internet Data Center

Mbps Megabit Per second

PUE Power Usage Effectiveness

IaaS Infrastructure as a Service

PaaS Platform as a Service

SaaS Software as a Service

互联网行业“十二五”发展规划

目  录

一、发展现状

(一)互联网应用迅猛发展

(二)互联网基础设施能力持续提升

(三)互联网技术创新能力不断增强

(四)具有国际影响力的互联网产业初步形成

(五)互联网行业管理体系基本建立

(六)互联网成为经济社会发展的重要引擎和基础平台

二、发展形势

(一)互联网的战略性基础设施地位更加突出

(二)互联网应用不断开创发展新愿景

(三)互联网技术变革和网络演进加速推进

(四)网络与信息安全挑战更趋严峻

(五)全球互联网管理力度不断加大

(六)我国互联网处在创新提升的重要关口

三、指导思想、基本原则和发展目标

(一)指导思想和基本原则

(二)发展目标

四、发展任务

(一)创新应用体系,培育发展互联网新兴业态

(二)服务两化融合,全面支撑经济社会发展

(三)建设“宽带中国”,推进网络基础设施优化升级

(四)推进整体布局,向下一代互联网发展演进

(五)突破关键技术,夯实核心基础产业

(六)加强顶层设计,建立先进完备的互联网标准体系

(七)完善监管体系,打造诚信守则的互联网市场环境

(八)健全制度手段,强化互联网基础管理

(九)加强体系建设,提升网络与信息安全保障能力

五、保障措施

(一)完善保障互联网健康发展的行业管理法律制度

(二)加强互联网管理制度和管理能力建设

(三)建立互联网健康发展的引导机制

(四)加强互联网基础设施建设的政策支持

(五)推动完善互联网发展的财税金融与知识产权政策

(六)培育和扶持互联网中小企业成长

(七)加强互联网专业人才体系建设

(八)推动完善互联网国际治理机制

前言

作为20世纪人类最伟大的发明之一,互联网正逐步成为信息时代人类社会发展的战略性基础设施,推动着生产和生活方式的深刻变革,进而不断重塑经济社会的发展模式,成为构建信息社会的重要基石。“十二五”时期是我国全面建设小康社会的关键时期,抓住技术业务变革的历史机遇,全面提升我国互联网的创新和科学发展能力,加快应用深化和普及,将有力推进信息化和工业化深度融合,形成推动经济发展方式加快转变、社会不断繁荣进步和人民生活持续改善的强大动力。

为贯彻党中央和国务院有关互联网发展和管理的要求,根据《国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》和《国务院关于加快培育和发展战略性新兴产业的决定》,工业和信息化部组织编写了《互联网行业“十二五”发展规划》,用于指导未来五年我国互联网的行业发展和管理。

一、发展现状

历经多年发展,我国互联网已成为全球互联网发展的重要组成部分。互联网全面渗透到经济社会的各个领域,成为生产建设、经济贸易、科技创新、公共服务、文化传播、生活娱乐的新型平台和变革力量,推动着我国向信息社会发展。

(一)互联网应用迅猛发展

互联网应用规模快速扩大。“十一五”期间,网民数增长3倍,达到4.57亿人,普及率攀升至34.3%,超过世界平均水平,其中城市网民达到3.32亿人,农村网民达到1.25亿人。互联网网站数由2005年底的69.4万增长至191万个,网页数增长13倍达到600亿个,容量接近1800TB。应用创新迅猛推进,移动互联网、互动媒体、网络娱乐、电子商务等成为“十一五”期间发展最快、影响最广的领域。

(二)互联网基础设施能力持续提升

我国已建成超大规模的互联网基础设施,网络通达所有城市和乡镇,形成了多个高性能骨干网互联互通、多种宽带接入的网络设施。“十一五”期间,固定宽带接入端口增长近3倍,达到1.88亿个,3G网络覆盖大部分城市和乡镇;骨干网带宽超过30Tbps,互联网国际出入口带宽增长7倍超过1Tbps,骨干网络海外POP点达到40个。互联网资源拥有量大幅增长,截至2010年,IPv4地址总量达2.78亿,居全球第2位,“.cn”注册量约435万,中文顶级域“.中国”实现全球解析,引入三个根域名镜像服务器,网络性能有效提升。

(三)互联网技术创新能力不断增强

技术标准影响力快速提升。2005年前,我国主导完成或署名的RFC数量共3个,到“十一五”期末增加到 46个,涵盖互联网路由、网际互联、安全等核心技术领域,国际影响力明显增强。下一代互联网领域快速进展,建成全球最大的IPv6示范网络,并在网络建设、应用试验和设备产业化等方面取得阶段性成果。面向未来的下一代互联网新型架构研发稳步推进。

(四)具有国际影响力的互联网产业初步形成

我国互联网服务已形成千亿元级市场,2010年,全行业收入规模超过2000亿元。在网络门户、即时通信、搜索引擎、电子商务、网络游戏等领域,具备了一定的国际影响力,部分企业进入了全球互联网企业市值排名前列。互联网设备制造业快速崛起,不仅满足国内发展需要,而且实现了海外拓展,高端路由器产品跻身全球市场前列。

(五)互联网行业管理体系基本建立

初步形成“分工负责、齐抓共管”的管理格局,基本建立了行业管理体系,形成了多个管理部门协同配合的工作机制。初步形成以《电信条例》、《互联网信息服务管理办法》等为基础的互联网行业管理法规框架,在互联网市场准入、互联与结算、资源管理、网络与信息安全等方面建立了依法管理的基础。基本建成覆盖事前、事中、事后三个环节,法律、行政、技术、经济手段和行业自律相结合的互联网市场监管体系。强化了用户权益保障的日常监督和服务监管机制。互联网基础管理成效显著,形成互联网资源部省两级管理机制,实行网站备案和IP地址备案管理,规范了域名注册服务。安全管理制度与技术手段不断强化,明确了企业网络信息安全责任,建立了安全防护、信息通报和应急处置等管理制度,初步形成网络与信息安全保障体系。

互联网行业自律和公众监督不断增强,成立了中国互联网协会。行业协会、企业、用户团体等各相关方,共同制定并实施了包括“中国互联网行业自律公约”、“反网络病毒自律公约”等互联网行业规范和自律公约,设立了12321网络不良与垃圾信息举报受理中心。广大网民文明上网、参与监督等意识不断提高。

(六)互联网成为经济社会发展的重要引擎和基础平台

互联网在经济发展中的作用日益显现。工业领域,多个工业企业不同程度地通过互联网开展生产经营活动,推动了工业转型升级。农业领域,截至2010年,建成涉农网站近2万个,乡镇信息服务站2万多个,支撑服务了农业农村发展。商贸领域,2010年电子商务交易总额达4.5万亿元,2007年至2010年间网络零售交易额年均增速是同期社会消费品零售额增速的5.7倍。互联网创造了越来越多的就业机会,2010年互联网服务企业直接从业人员接近80万人,并有上百万人以开网店形式实现了就业。同时,互联网推动了政府管理和公共服务水平的提升,促进了文化传播和社会交往方式的变革创新。

在我国互联网行业发展和管理取得显著成就的同时,问题和矛盾也不断凸显。一是应用深度和广度有待提高,区域和城乡差异显著。二是人均带宽与国际先进水平差距大,国内互联瓶颈仍突出。三是互联网技术创新能力和产业实力偏弱,操作系统、核心芯片等关键技术瓶颈仍未根本突破。四是市场行为亟需规范,市场规则、诚信体系和行业自律仍需完善,用户权益和隐私保护有待加强。五是网络与信息安全问题突出,维护安全可信公共网络环境的制度和手段需进一步健全。六是法律法规有所滞后,基础管理仍需加强,跨部门跨区域管理机制的协同性与高效性亟需提升,行业管理力量亟需增强。

二、发展形势

(一)互联网的战略性基础设施地位更加突出

互联网仍将是全球经济发展中最有活力的领域之一,不断创造新业态、新市场,形成新的经济增长点。互联网将更为广泛和深入地推动产业升级、促进经济运行和交易方式的根本变革、改进社会公共服务、创新政府管理模式。与此同时,围绕互联网的全球战略布局加快、国际竞争加剧,网络空间成为继领土、领海、领空和太空之后的重要新疆域,保障网络空间国家利益成为新的任务。主要国家结合本国资源禀赋与核心优势,相继出台互联网国家战略和行动计划,加快构建现实世界与网络空间有机统一的国家综合竞争新优势。

(二)互联网应用不断开创发展新愿景

互联网的移动化、融合化、平台化等趋势将开辟更深交融、更广交互、更高智能的发展新阶段。应用形态不断扩展,宽带移动、多媒体、智能搜索等将使互联网应用范围和信息智能空前提升,社会化网络和大规模交互式协同将不断扩大创新空间、加速创新步伐。应用模式不断变革,云计算将深刻改变计算模式和信息服务模式,泛在感知、高速互联和智能处理技术的发展更将互联对象从人扩展到物。互联网发展形成的跨界融合将不断深入,推动通信、广播电视、软件等产业的深刻变革,更与传统产业加速融合集成,催生新业态和新市场。

(三)互联网技术变革和网络演进加速推进

互联网流量高速增长,要求网络带宽能力快速提升。网络形态发生深刻变化,以CDN、IDC等为代表的互联网应用平台形成了新的应用基础设施,改变着互联网的流量分布和设施布局。下一代互联网的演进和技术前沿布局加快,各国加速向以IPv6为基础的下一代互联网演进过渡,以系统解决可扩展性、安全、质量、节能等重大问题为目标,积极开展创新型网络体系结构及关键技术研究。互联网资源新的发展机遇显现,IPv6创造出巨大的地址空间,新通用顶级域名走向开放,中文域名等多语种域名不断发展。

(四)网络与信息安全挑战更趋严峻

互联网上信息来源海量化,信息传播和聚合能力空前增强,信息内容形态和交互模式日益复杂,对不良信息的管理面临严峻挑战。以智能终端和应用商店为代表,网络、系统、终端、应用的安全问题相互交织,应用层和终端的网络信息安全问题越来越突出。随着网络融合以及新技术新业务发展,网络本身也更容易受到来自内外部的攻击。云计算等新业态可以实现跨地域、虚拟化服务模式,带来大规模数据跨境流动引发的安全等问题。互联网网络形态、流量分布和网络架构的加速演化,应用基础设施的兴起,对互联网网络安全、互联互通、性能质量等提出新的管理挑战。

(五)全球互联网管理力度不断加大

应对互联网的快速创新及与现实世界管理的不断交融,国际社会积极探索适应本国的管理方式,在不断加强法制环境建设的基础上,针对网络与信息安全、个人隐私、青少年保护和知识产权等突出问题,加强政策调整和监管创新,加大管理力度和跨领域协作,强化经济、技术、法律等手段的综合运用,大力推动行业自律和公众监督,构建全方位的社会化治理体系,着力打造安全、健康、诚信的网络环境。同时,国际社会正不断加强互联网管理的国际协同,通过国际多边和双边机制,加快探索网络空间国际规则的形成,以应对日益复杂的网络空间挑战。

(六)我国互联网处在创新提升的重要关口

“十二五”是我国经济社会发展的重要机遇期,扩大消费需求,积极稳妥推进城镇化,发展现代产业体系,为互联网的发展创造了强劲的需求动力和巨大的市场空间,互联网自身也面临着不断完善基础设施、繁荣服务业态、深化应用普及的发展责任。当前,全球互联网正处在快速变革的时期,各国在下一代互联网、物联网、云计算、移动互联网、三网融合等技术业务变革中面临的机遇和挑战类似,发展起步的差距不大,这为我国在新时期互联网发展和国际竞争中加快创新、不断迈进提供了难得的历史机遇。

随着应用领域的扩大和应用人群的增加,我国在互联网领域的国际影响日益增强,从技术、产业到服务初步具备向更高水平发展的基本条件。面临日益激烈的国际竞争形势,面对互联网不断发展创新的步伐和日益加大的安全压力,我们必须主动适应经济社会发展的紧迫要求,把握互联网技术产业变革的趋势和规律,力争在新一轮互联网产业技术革命中赢得优势,为我国加快转变发展方式、迈进信息社会奠定坚实基础。

三、指导思想、基本原则和发展目标

(一)指导思想和基本原则

以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入贯彻落实科学发展观,紧紧围绕加快经济发展方式转变、全面建设小康社会的要求,以支撑经济社会发展为出发点,以提升自主发展能力为主攻方向,以保障网络与信息安全、维护消费者权益为基本要求,以实施科学管理、优化发展环境为根本保障,着力夯实基础网络,着力推进技术、业务、商业模式和管理机制创新,扩大普及、深化应用,不断提升互联网发展水平,服务信息化与工业化深度融合,为建设下一代国家信息基础设施和全面提高信息化水平奠定坚实基础。

坚持深化普及应用牵引的原则。着力推进互联网普及,加强城乡区域协调,加快互联网在国民经济和社会各领域的深度应用,促进信息化与工业化深度融合。

坚持创新发展全面提升的原则。着力推进互联网技术、业务和商业模式的自主创新,围绕应用服务、网络设施、终端平台等关键环节,攻克和掌握核心技术,促进应用创新、网络演进、技术突破和产业发展的互动协同,实现互联网应用、技术、产业的全面提升。

坚持科学管理优化环境的原则。着力加强法律法规建设,深化管理机制和管理模式创新,强化技术手段和规范行政执法,发挥行业组织和社会公众作用。规范市场竞争、落实企业责任、优化诚信环境,切实保护用户等各类群体的合法权益,构建政府依法管理、行业有序自律、社会有效监督、技术保障有力的综合管理体系和发展环境。

坚持保障网络与信息安全的原则。适应技术演进与应用发展,着力推进网络与信息安全保障体系建设,不断增强关键资源、基础网络、核心系统等领域的掌控能力和主动防御能力,实现安全发展。

(二)发展目标

到“十二五”期末,建成宽带高速、广泛普及、安全可靠、可信可管、绿色健康的网络环境,形成公平竞争、诚信守则、创新活跃的市场环境,实现从应用创新、网络演进到技术突破、产业升级的全面提升,在转变经济发展方式、服务社会民生中的作用更加显著:

1.对经济社会贡献持续提高。互联网在转变经济发展方式和促进结构调整中的作用更加突出,基于互联网的协同研发设计、定制生产营销等广泛应用,网络金融和电子商务普及深化,2015年电子商务交易额达到18万亿元。互联网在社会发展和服务民生中的基础性作用凸显,2015年互联网企业直接吸纳就业超过230万人,并带动更大规模的就业增长,基于互联网的公共管理和社会服务能力显著提升。

2.互联网应用服务普及提升。网民数超过8亿人,普及率超过57%,其中农村网民超过2亿人。网络信息资源大幅增加,网页规模超过4000亿个,人均占有量提高5.4倍。政府、企事业单位、学校、医疗卫生机构、社区全面接入互联网。创新性应用和原创性品牌成为引领我国互联网发展的主要力量,搜索、移动互联网、云计算、物联网等服务规模和国际影响力显著提升。

3. 接入能力实现跃升。互联网固定宽带接入端口超过3.7亿个,城市家庭带宽接入能力基本达到20Mbps以上,同时满足至少2路高清电视和1路高速上网;农村家庭带宽接入能力基本达到4Mbps以上,同时满足至少1路标清电视和1路高速上网。宽带覆盖政府、学校、图书馆、医疗卫生机构、社区中心等公益性机构以及机场、火车站等公共设施,行政村基本通宽带,实现2亿家庭光纤到户覆盖。

4. 网络设施升级优化。骨干网总带宽较“十一五”期末增长10倍,达到300Tbps,网间互通质量达到国际先进水平,国际互联网出口带宽增长5倍达到6.5Tbps,骨干网络海外POP点达到100个。骨干网全面支持IPv6,主要商业网站、教育科研网站和政府网站支持IPv6。IDC空间布局进一步优化,实现技术升级,改造后IDC的PUE值力争达到2以下,新建大型云计算数据中心的PUE值达到1.5以下。高速可靠的CDN覆盖全国。

5. 互联网产业迈上新台阶。“十二五”期间,互联网服务业收入年均增长超过25%,突破6000亿元。新兴服务成为主要增长力量,生产性互联网服务有显著增长。形成一批掌握核心技术、具有国际影响力的互联网骨干企业,以及众多创新活跃、特色鲜明的中小企业。移动智能终端操作系统、云计算和互联网新兴应用技术等方面取得突破,互联网核心网络设备、智能终端、基础软件、核心芯片等产业自主发展能力显著提高。互联网业务与应用标准化体系初步建立,下一代互联网标准体系逐步完备,云计算、IDC等标准取得实质进展,中文域名、域名安全解析等资源类标准取得突破,网络信息安全标准满足安全运行需要,国际标准影响力明显加强。

6. 市场竞争环境诚信有序。互联网市场格局得到优化,市场行为更加规范,行业自律普遍强化,行为守则与协调解决机制全面建立,市场秩序明显好转。用户知情权、选择权和隐私权等进一步得到保障,用户满意度明显提升。协作共赢、良性竞争、规范有序的互联网市场体系基本形成,产业链上下游协作关系更加合理顺畅。

7. 发展保障能力显著增强。与发展相适应的互联网行业管理体系和法律环境更趋完善,基础管理能力显著提升。适应技术业务创新的网与络信息安全保障体系基本建立,安全可信的网络环境建设取得实质性突破,安全保障能力与互联网及国民经济和社会信息化发展同步提升。

四、发展任务

(一)创新应用体系,培育发展互联网新兴业态

全面推进互联网应用创新。强化应用创新的引导与规范,大力发展生产性、民生性互联网应用创新服务,支持健康向上的数字内容服务。构建互联网应用创新生态体系,优化基础电信运营、互联网服务、内容提供及软件开发企业间互动发展格局,加强对中小企业特别是创新型企业的知识产权保护和服务。全面深化对互联网信息资源的利用,在保障安全和用户隐私的前提下提升信息整合、挖掘能力,培育和规范基于信息数据的新应用新市场。突破智能搜索、新一代web及浏览器、多媒体等互联网应用关键技术,加快互联网应用基础平台、智能终端操作系统等的研发推广,构建基于互联网能力开放的应用聚合及业务创新体系。

专栏1:互联网应用创新示范工程

互联网新型应用示范:建立互联网应用创新孵化基地,重点面向生产和公共服务领域,在教育培训、医疗卫生、城市管理、食品安全、环境监控、旅游服务、智能交通、商业营销、财会服务等领域开展网络视频、增强现实等新型应用示范。

互联网应用基础技术创新:组织推进互联网新一代web应用技术、智能搜索技术等研发突破和应用平台建设。

推进移动互联网整体突破。积极推动产业链协作,构建移动互联网生态体系。加快移动智能终端操作系统平台协作研发,推进操作系统、中间件、移动浏览器、应用服务、核心芯片、智能终端等领域取得突破。推动移动互联网应用发展,加快标准化,优先形成行业通用的高层应用平台,鼓励开放第三方应用开发程序接口并形成跨终端平台的应用商店,推动大规模协作的应用创新。

专栏2:移动互联网创新应用示范工程

推动建立移动互联网产业技术联盟。组织移动智能终端操作系统、移动浏览器、通用web运行环境等应用平台的研发,打造包括操作系统、中间件、应用商店、整机、核心芯片贯通整合的产业生态系统。制定应用接口、浏览器、移动视频、移动支付、安全等关键标准。面向智能终端平台,开展移动互联网公共软件商店和重点应用示范,实现智能手机和移动互联网应用服务规模发展。

推进云计算服务商业化发展。部署和开展云计算商业应用示范,引导和支持企业等开放自身的计算存储等资源和服务管理能力,构建公共云计算服务平台,促进云计算业务创新和商业模式创新,推进公有云的商业化发展。

推动物联网与互联网的融合集成应用。结合互联网架构优化和移动互联网发展,统筹协调传感器网络等感知基础设施和智能处理中心等应用基础设施,形成依托互联网的融合发展布局。整合互联网与物联网新兴服务,开展在工业、生产性服务业、重要基础设施、城市管理、交通运输等领域的先导应用。围绕应用共性需求,建设互联网与物联网相结合的技术、测试、资源管理、信息等公共服务平台。

专栏3:云计算应用示范工程

云计算关键技术及产业化推进:重点突破超大规模云计算操作系统、虚拟化、高速网络等关键技术,组织采用云计算技术开展公共应用示范,推进云计算产业链整合。制定云计算关键技术标准、服务和安全管理规范,积极参与国际标准制定。

云计算应用示范:积极有序地开展安全、高效、绿色的基础设施即服务(IaaS)示范,支持基于互联网的应用平台即服务(PaaS),积极利用云计算技术发展面向中小企业的软件即服务(SaaS)。在电子政务和教育、医疗、交通等公共服务领域推动云计算应用。

云计算安全防护:开展云安全技术研发,突破云计算安全关键核心技术。研究制定云计算安全管理制度。

积极推动电子商务加快发展。建设第三方电子商务平台,以移动互联网和移动支付发展为契机推动移动电子商务规模应用,大力发展面向中小企业的电子商务服务,完善支付体系和诚信体系等支撑环境。

(二)服务两化融合,全面支撑经济社会发展

推进互联网在工农业领域的广泛应用与综合集成。将互联网与研发设计融合,构建网络化、协同化的研发设计体系;将互联网与企业营销生产融合;将互联网融合于企业生产经营管理,建立高效协同供应链管理、营销管理和物流体系,实现市场需求智能化感知和动态响应。大力推进互联网在农业、农村的应用,发展面向三农的互联网综合信息服务。

全面应用互联网推进服务业的现代化。积极推动互联网在服务业中的广泛普及和深化应用,推动金融、商贸、物流、旅游等服务领域的信息化改造和网络化经营,延伸服务产业链,显著提升服务水平和附加价值,推动服务业高端发展和向现代服务业的优化升级。

专栏4:互联网生产性应用示范工程

制造业领域的互联网应用示范:重点开展互联网协同研发设计、网络化柔性定制、产业链协同电子商务、供应链智能化管理等示范试点。

面向企业的公共信息服务示范:打造基于互联网的信息咨询、知识产权运用转化、第三方电子商务等公共服务平台。

完善互联网社会信息化服务平台。加强互联网在教育、医疗、社保、人口等领域中的应用,提高公共服务效率和能力。完善政府门户网站和基于互联网的公共服务系统,支撑政府建设在线公共服务与政民互动的新技术新业务手段,推动提升互联网时代的政府公共服务和管理能力。完善基于互联网的公共信息服务系统。

促进社会就业、创业。以电子商务、网络创作、应用程序和新兴互联网服务等为重点,不断拓展新领域、发展新业态、培育新热点,创造就业机会、降低创业门槛,促进高校毕业生创业就业,吸纳城镇新增就业人员,帮助农村就业人口实现“离土不离乡”。

(三)建设“宽带中国”,推进网络基础设施优化升级

加快网络接入的宽带化建设。实施宽带中国战略,综合利用光纤接入和宽带无线移动通信等手段,加速网络宽带化进程。在城市地区推进光纤到楼入户,在乡镇和行政村推进光纤网络向下延伸。大力发展新一代移动通信,加快提升3G覆盖范围和质量,统筹推进LTE商用,建设宽带无线城市。逐步提高农村、学校与医院等公共机构和特殊人群的网络覆盖和应用普及,缩小数字鸿沟。

优化调整互联网国内整体架构。推动本地直联试点和长途互联方式的转变,合理布局骨干直联点,减少网络间流量绕转。探索交换中心发展模式,对交换中心进行配套改造,充分发挥交换中心流量疏导作用。保障互联网网间带宽适时扩容,严格保证网间带宽利用和性能指标,在提升网间通信质量的同时加强网络安全性。统筹协调运营商互联网网络建设,配合互联网网间架构调整,引导其进行网内建设。

完善互联网国际网络布局。持续提升国际出入口能力。根据业务发展需要,在具备条件的国家和地区增设骨干网海外POP点,扩展国际业务直达范围。适时建设国际数据中心,在全球范围形成更加广泛的网络通达和业务覆盖。加强海缆建设和使用权购买,增加登陆海缆,完善国际陆缆建设。统筹协调运营企业海缆路由规划及海外POP点部署,加强安全防护。

加快构建互联网应用基础设施。综合考虑网络架构、市场需求、配套环境、地理能源、信息安全等因素,加强技术标准和产业政策引导,优化大型数据中心的建设布局,保障大型数据中心之间的网络高速畅通。全面开展以绿色节能和云计算技术为基础的IDC改造,提升数据中心能效和资源利用率,提升集约化管理运营水平。统筹推进CDN建设,引导支持有条件的企业开展CDN建设和运营,扩展网络容量、覆盖范围和服务能力,积极完善安全管理制度和技术手段,逐步形成技术先进、安全可靠的CDN网络,提高互联网对多媒体、大带宽应用的支撑能力。

专栏5:互联网基础设施优化提升工程

网络宽带化提升:支持新建城市住宅小区、商业楼宇部署光纤宽带网络和已建住宅小区的光纤入户改造。组织开展政府、学校、医院等公共服务机构的宽带建设。

宽带无线接入提升:积极推动无线城市建设,提升固定、移动通信网络的无线宽带数据接入能力,综合利用卫星及无线技术手段提升对农村及边远地区网络覆盖。

数据中心改造升级:充分利用云计算、绿色节能等先进技术,综合考虑建筑、场地、布线、网络、供电、制冷等因素,对大型数据中心进行技术改造升级。

互联网网络监管平台:构建互联网网间质量监控等网络监管平台,实现对互联网网间通信质量的实时监控。

(四)推进整体布局,向下一代互联网发展演进

推进互联网向IPv6的平滑过渡。在同步考虑网络与信息安全的前提下制定国家层面推进方案,加快IPv6商用部署。以重点城市和重点网络为先导推进网络改造,以重点商业网站和政府网站为先导推进应用迁移,发展特色应用,积极推动固定终端和移动智能终端对IPv6的支持,在网络中全面部署IPv6安全防护系统。加快IPv6产业链建设,形成网络设备制造、软件开发、运营服务、应用等创新链条和大规模产业。

加快面向未来互联网技术研发前沿布局。加快建设支持互联网网络和应用领域科学研究、技术研发和产业化的创新试验环境,以解决未来网络可扩展性、安全、质量和能耗等问题为重点,开展未来互联网理论研究和技术攻关,在创新性体系架构和重大关键技术上取得突破,适时开展应用示范。

专栏6:IPv6商用推进工程

推动IPv6商用部署,实施互联网网络向IPv6的过渡改造,组织IPv4-IPv6互访试验示范和推广。推进政府、教育、商业网站和IDC向IPv6的升级。以移动  互联网、物联网等为切入点开展IPv6应用示范。建设IPv6网络基础资源统计分析平台。建立网站和IDC系统IPv6评测认证机制。

(五)突破关键技术,夯实核心基础产业

抓住机遇突破互联网相关高端软件和基础软件。重点支持移动智能终端操作系统、网络化操作系统平台、智能海量数据资源中心管理系统等新兴网络化基础软件研发与产业化,支持面向互联网新兴业态的关键应用软件和信息技术支撑软件研发及产业化。

支持高端服务器和核心网络设备等产业发展。研发高并发性、高吞吐量、高可靠性、高容错性的高端服务器,以及高处理能力、低成本、低能耗的超级服务器;研发低能耗高端路由器、大容量集群骨干核心路由器和虚拟化可编程路由器等核心网络设备。加强核心芯片设计制造能力,研发低能耗高端路由器芯片、高速接入设备芯片,以及支持下一代网络的智能终端芯片等核心器件。

(六)加强顶层设计,建立先进完备的互联网标准体系

开展IP地址、域名资源管理、域名安全技术标准的研发,加强中文域名、地址可信、域名安全解析等领域的标准研制。建立互联网业务应用类标准体系。完善以IPv6过渡和安全为重点的网络和设备标准体系,超前布局创新型网络体系结构标准研究。加快云计算标准体系设计和重点领域的标准制定。围绕IDC、CDN等应用基础设施的改造与布局,加快相应标准制修订。以架构体系和物品编码等为重点,建立物联网标准体系。加强网络与信息安全标准研制,完善安全防护系列标准,加强业务应用的安全标准研究。鼓励企业积极参与国际标准化活动,深化和扩大与主要国际标准组织的交流合作,大力推动国内标准的国际化,提升在国际标准中的影响力和话语权。

(七)完善监管体系,打造诚信守则的互联网市场环境

探索建立互联网业务分级分类指导的监管模式。综合考虑发展阶段、形态属性、市场规模等因素,探索互联网业务的分级分类管理模式。加强互联网电信业务市场准入与新闻、文化、出版、视听节目、教育、医疗保健、药品和医疗器械等专项前后置审批的协同性,形成专项内容管理与互联网电信业务管理相互衔接、有效配合的管理局面。

强化市场监管体系建设。逐步建立互联网服务企业信用记录、评估与公示制度。完善市场规则和争议协调处理机制,规范互联网信息服务活动,理顺产业链上下游关系,维护公平、公正、有序的市场秩序。完善覆盖应用、接入、网络基础设施、资源各层的市场监测体系,建设和完善业务市场综合管理系统,加强系统间资源共享和高效联动,逐步建立互联网市场分级预警机制。

大力倡导行业自律。积极发挥行业协会作用,强化行业自律机制,完善行业规范与自律公约,加强从业规范宣传。督促企业加强自律,遵从商业道德,切实履行社会责任和社会义务,主动规范竞争等市场行为,加强内部管理和自律检查,自觉抵制排挤或诋毁竞争对手、侵害消费者利益等不良行为。积极引导消费者文明上网,加强网民自律。进一步健全举报渠道,鼓励社会公众积极监督、举报互联网上的不良信息传播与市场中不良竞争行为。

建立健全互联网用户权益保护机制。建立完善互联网用户权益保护协调处置机制。完善面向用户权益的互联网服务质量和服务规范指标体系。加快现有电信服务规范体系、服务测评和监督检查机制向互联网服务领域延伸,完善覆盖政府、企业、社会三方的互联网用户投诉申诉处理流程和工作机制。加强用户个人数据保护,明确互联网服务提供者保护用户个人数据的义务,制定用户数据保护标准,逐步建立独立第三方评估认证制度。

(八)健全制度手段,强化互联网基础管理

完善互联网资源发展和管理制度。进一步推动IP地址的申请,鼓励推广使用IPv6地址。优化域名产业发展政策,规范和引导域名产业健康有序发展。推动建立域名注册和使用的诚信体系,在保障安全基础上推进“.CN”、“.中国”等国家顶级域的全球发展,提高中文域名及中文网站的国际影响力。建立健全IP地址管理制度,统筹规划IP地址资源的申请、使用和协调。完善域名注册管理办法和注册流程,强化域名注册管理机构和域名注册服务机构的企业责任,打击违法违规行为,规范市场秩序。探索建立域名解析服务标准和市场管理制度,提高域名解析服务质量。

加强技术手段研究和技术平台建设。建设完善网站备案、IP地址、域名等互联网基础资源管理系统,进一步提高IP地址分配使用备案率的准确率和域名实名注册率。加大对域名系统及其安全技术的研究,保障域名注册数据和域名解析系统安全。

(九)加强体系建设,提升网络与信息安全保障能力

加强网络与信息安全管理。深入推进安全等级保护、安全评测、风险评估等基础工作,强化IDC、域名体系等互联网基础设施安全保障,加大网络安全监测、冗余备份等安全基础设施建设力度,加强对增值电信业务、移动互联网和智能终端的网络安全监管工作。探索建立互联网新技术新业务信息安全评估体系,落实网络信息安全保护措施,提高安全防患和处置能力。进一步加强网络信息安全技术监管手段的属地化建设,强化企业网络与信息安全责任的落实。

加强互联网网络安全的应急管理能力。制定实施域名服务机构、网站分级规范,从健全工作机制、贯彻和完善工作预案等方面入手,提高重大活动保障和突发事件应急处置能力。持续推进公共网络环境治理,推进木马和僵尸网络专项打击与常态化治理,打击计算机和手机病毒利益链,组织开展网络安全联合应急演练,加强重要联网信息系统的安全监测。

提高互联网装备安全管控水平。坚持基础软硬件产品和专用安全产品并举,提高关键装备可控水平,支持安全技术产品研发,完善信息安全产业链,发展和规范网络与信息安全服务业。

培育网络信息安全环境和文化。宣贯安全责任,增强政府、企业、用户各个层面安全意识,提升安全防护能力,并通过行业自律、社会监督等多种方式培育安全环境和文化。

五、保障措施

(一)完善保障互联网健康发展的行业管理法律制度

加快完善相关法律法规,积极为互联网行业发展和管理营造更为健全的法律环境。推动用户信息保护、知识产权保护、网络实名、数据保护等相关立法,建立安全可信的在线环境,保护互联网技术与业务创新,创造有利于持续健康发展的法律环境。加强网络与信息安全立法,修改《互联网信息服务管理办法》以及域名、IP地址等互联网资源管理规定,规范互联网信息服务行为。加强互联网企业境内外上市、外资并购等过程中的行业管理。

(二)加强互联网管理制度和管理能力建设

推动完善跨部门、跨区域协同工作机制。按照职责分工,严格落实开办网站的前后置审批制度。结合互联网发展新形势,不断完善部门间协同配合工作机制,完善跨区域联动管理流程,提高管理效能,强化重大突发事件的应对和协调处理能力。

加快充实互联网行业管理力量和资源配置。加强互联网行业管理机构建设,推动互联网行业管理力量延伸。加大人员和资金投入,提高专业化水平,加强互联网行业管理。

提升互联网行业管理的信息化水平。加强对互联网发展规律的前瞻性研究跟踪,及时升级技术手段。加大行业管理各项系统建设,加强系统间的高效联动和资源共享,提高管理效率。

(三)建立互联网健康发展的引导机制

引导优化互联网产业结构。按照《产业结构调整指导目录》确定的鼓励类范围,引导社会资源进入互联网重点发展领域,推动互联网新兴产业特别是生产性互联网服务业加快发展。根据产业发展需要,适时修订产业目录,调整和扩大纳入鼓励类的互联网设备产品和应用服务。建立互联网企业、电子制造企业和软件企业良性互动的机制,推动产业链的整体提升。

推动跨部门、跨行业的长期战略合作。在安全生产、质量监督、教育医疗、环境保护、交通与社会管理等生产性、民生性服务领域加强部门间、行业间深度合作,优化互联网产业服务方向和结构。

加强互联网行业发展的信息发布。定期发布重点业务监测信息、产业发展白皮书和发展指导报告,提供技术演进、市场竞争、应用需求等方面情况,引导创新方向和市场资源配置。

(四)加强互联网基础设施建设的政策支持

通过现有资金渠道,引导高速宽带接入网络、下一代互联网等基础设施加快发展,探索通过增加补贴等方式,推进西部地区、广大农村、少数民族地区及社区和公益性机构的光纤宽带建设。加强互联网基础设施建设与城建等部门协同联动机制,确保城市建设中光缆管线、宽带接入网络等与城市基础设施同步规划、同步建设;加强海陆缆等国际通信基础设施建设的国内跨部门协调和国际协调合作。出台互联网网间架构调整指导意见,适时调整骨干互联网互联互通结算政策,优化互联网网间结构,建立网间扩容长效机制,完善互联网网间通信质量监测机制和手段。加强关键域名系统的备份和应急设施建设。

(五)推动完善互联网发展的财税金融与知识产权政策

推动加大对互联网重点发展领域的财税支持。综合利用各种专项资金,加大对互联网重点发展领域的资金投入。在国家重大专项、科技支撑计划的立项和实施中,加大对移动互联网、下一代互联网、云计算、物联网等领域技术研发的支持,推动产业化。支持互联网企业按照中央和地方政府相关规定依法享受财税等优惠政策。

完善互联网投融资环境。积极推进专利等知识产权质押融资试点,推动投资担保机构为互联网企业提供贷款担保,推进互联网企业开展集合发债、联合贷款等试点。支持互联网企业发行公司债券、短期融资债券等。推动完善国内资本市场环境,促进风险投资机制建设,鼓励互联网优质上市企业回归。

强化知识产权保护。推动建立以企业为主体、以市场为导向、产学研用相结合的互联网企业知识产权创新体系。促进完善知识产权价值评估和利益分享机制,鼓励企业知识产权转化运用,积极配合打击互联网领域侵权盗版行为。提高互联网企业应对知识产权纠纷的能力,引导企业依法应对涉及知识产权的侵权行为和法律诉讼。

(六)培育和扶持互联网中小企业成长

改善创业环境、培育创业主体、强化创业服务、建设创业基地,支持互联网中小企业创立和发展。增强管理部门服务意识,提高服务效率,在规范互联网中小企业健康发展的同时强化服务。结合《中小企业划型标准规定》,将符合条件的互联网中小企业和微型企业明确纳入国家现有政策体系,依法享受税收、投融资等相关扶持。在中央财政扶持中小企业发展的各项资金中,对符合条件的互联网中小企业予以积极支持。探索以市场为导向、适应互联网中小企业发展的专项支持政策。

(七)加强互联网专业人才体系建设

引导高校结合互联网新兴业态的发展考虑专业设置和调整,鼓励通过合作办学、定向培养、继续教育等多种方式培养互联网人才,建立和完善产学研用合作的人才培养模式。推进提高企业职工培训经费的提取比例,鼓励互联网企业加大职工培训投入力度。加强创新型人才的引进和利用,与相关部门共同探索互联网特殊人才的税收、入户、住房等配套激励机制。推动完善技术入股、股票期权等知识资本化激励方式。利用国家引进高层次海外人才计划的平台,积极引进互联网发展所需高端人才。健全互联网人才评价体系,加强人才科学管理。

(八)推动完善互联网国际治理机制

将互联网发展纳入国家经济发展和对外交往工作大局,逐步建立社会各方力量广泛参与的机制,积极参加联合国、区域和国际组织的活动,充分利用多边和双边机制开展多层次、多渠道的对话与交流。加强网络空间规则、资源、安全等国际合作,深入参与国际社会互联网公共政策与规则制定的讨论与磋商,不断推动建立多边、民主、透明的国际互联网基础资源分配体系,积极推进网络安全领域政府间及非政府间国际合作,促进对跨国网络安全事件的协同处置。

附件:名词解释

 

附件:

名词解释

英文简称 英文全称 中文全称
TB Tera bit 太字节
3G 3rd-Generation 第三代移动通信
Tbps Tera bit Per second 太比特每秒
POP点 Point of Presence 网络服务提供点
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4 互联网协议版本4
RFC Request for Comment 请求评论稿
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6 互联网协议版本6
IP Internet Protocol 互联网协议
CDN Content Delivery Network 内容分发网络
IDC Internet Data Center 互联网数据中心
Mbps Megabit Per second 兆比特每秒
PUE Power Usage Effectiveness 能源使用效率
IaaS Infrastructure as a Service 基础设施即服务
PaaS Platform as a Service 平台即服务
SaaS Software as a Service 软件即服务

4 thoughts on ““12th Five-Year” Development Plan for the Internet Sector

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