National Security Law of the People’s Republic of China

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(Passed at the 15th Meeting of the 12th National People’s Congress Standing Committee on 1 July 2015)

Chapter I: General principles

Article 1: In order to safeguard national security, defend the people’s democratic dictatorship regime and the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, protect the fundamental interests of the people, ensure the smooth progress of reform, opening up and Socialist modernization construction, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, in accordance with the Constitution, this Law is formulated. Read the rest of this entry »

Cybersecurity Law draft under discussion at NPC

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A few days ago, it was reported in the Chinese press that opinions were solicited concerning the promulgation of cybersecurity legislation. According to these reports, consultation meetings had already been held with large Chinese companies such as Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent, 360 and Huawei, and that public consultation would be imminent. In the mean time, a draft cybersecurity law has been presented to the National People’s Congress Standing Committee at its bimonthly meeting. No text has been released as of yet, but a Xinhua press release summaries the main points of the draft. 

Draft Cybersecurity Law: Safeguard Sovereignty in Cyberspace

Xinhua (Journalists Luo Yufan, Chen Fei)

In order to ensure cybersecurity, safeguard sovereignty and national security in cyberspace, stimulate the healthy development of economic and social informatization, the incessant perfection of laws and regulations in the area of cyberspace protection is urgently required. The 5th Meeting of the 12th National People’s Congress Standing Committee has deliberated a draft cybersecurity law on the 24th.

The draft has 18 articles in 7 chapters, and provides a concrete structural design for areas such as guaranteeing the security of network products and services, guaranteeing the security of network operations, guaranteeing the security of network data, and guaranteeing the security of network information. Read the rest of this entry »

Management Rules for the Dissemination of Audiovisual Programmes through the Internet and Other Information Networks

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(Opinion-solicitation draft)

Chapter I: General Principles

Article 1: In order to standardize the audiovisual programme dissemination order through the Internet and other information networks, stimulate the healthy and orderly development of audiovisual programme dissemination services through the Internet and other such information networks, safeguard the national interest and the public interest, and protect the lawful rights and interests of the public and bodies involved, these Rules are formulated. Read the rest of this entry »

Foster Good Netizens, Build a Safe Net Together

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Speech at the Initiation Ceremony for the 2nd National Cybersecurity Propaganda Week

1 June 2015

Lu Wei

All respected guests,

Comrades, students, friends:

Good morning, everyone! Today is “1 June”, the International Children’s Day, on this beautiful day that belongs to children, we are holding the initiation ceremony for the 2nd National Cybersecurity Propaganda Week in the China Science and Technology Museum. First and foremost, on behalf of the Central Internet Information Office [Note: this is a literal translation, the official English name for this body is the Cyberspace Administration of China], I’d like to send my congratulations to children on this holiday, and would like to express heartfelt thanks to all sponsoring work units, all localities and all departments, all enterprises and news media that support and participate in this Cybersecurity Propaganda Week! Read the rest of this entry »

State Governance in the Internet Era

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This article was originally posted on the Red Flag Manuscripts/Seeking Truth website on 22 May.

Song Fangmin

The 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress put forward the overall objective of comprehensively deepening reform, which requires “perfecting and developing the Socialist system with Chinese characteristics, and moving forward the modernization of State governance systems and governing capabilities”. The modernization of State governance systems and governing capabilities transcend and develop traditional management, they cannot do without the support of modern Internet and informatization technologies, this is a major change with revolutionary significance, and requires our deep research. Read the rest of this entry »

Cybersovereignty Symbolizes National Sovereignty

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This article was published today in the PLA Daily, and reposted on the Seeking Truth website.

No-one living today can leave the network. The network is changing people’ lives, and is profoundly influencing national security.

Cybersovereignty symbolized national sovereignty. The online space is also the security space of a nation. If we do not occupy the online battlefield ourselves, others will occupy it; if we do not defend online territory ourselves, sovereignty will be lost, and it may even become a “bridgehead” for hostile forces to erode and disintegrate us.

The Internet has become the main battlefront for struggle in the ideological area. With the existence of the network, the ideological front has been completely thrown open, gates of minds have become gates of the country, defence of the mind has become defence of the country, and a battle of the minds has become a hidden war. Whoever controls the network, will seize the commanding heights in the ideological struggle, and command the lifelines of national security and development in the information era.

Network resources are not virtual resources, but they are real resources involving national security. In the network age, a country’s information, resources, morale, key nodes, etc., can be wantonly pillaged by hostile nations who control advanced network technology.

National security has become an important component part of our country’s overall security “chessboard”. It may be said that without cybersecurity, there is no national security.

With regard to cybersecurity, apart from the fact that we have strengthened technological forces, strengthening “moral defence” forces should become the heaviest of heavies. The Internet is “the greatest variable” that we face, if we do not handle it well, it may become “an anxiety in hearts and minds”. Especially online ideological work involves our banners, our path and national political security, this is a core battlefield that we must defend and occupy. A scholar pointed out that: “control of cyber power in the 21st century is equally decisive as controlling naval power in the 19th Century and airpower in the 20th”. Western anti-China forces have continuously and vainly attempted to use the Internet to topple China. A few years ago, western political leaders stated that “with the Internet, there is a way to counter China”, and “Socialist countries will fall into the Western fold, and this will start with the Internet”.

Consequently, Western hostile forces and a small number of “ideological traitors” in our country use the network, and relying on computers, mobile phones and other such information terminals, maliciously attack our Party, blacken the leaders who founded the New China, vilify our heroes, and arouse mistaken thinking trends of historical nihilism, with the ultimate goal of using “universal values” to mislead us, using “constitutional democracy” to throw us into turmoil, use “colour revolutions” to overthrow us, use negative public opinion and rumours to oppose us, and use “de-partification and depoliticization of the military” to upset us.

On this battlefield of the Internet, whether or not we are able to ward of the enemy from the gates of minds, directly affects our country’s ideological security and regime security. This is an online public opinion battle with glints and flashes of cold steel and numerous opportunities to make a kill. Back in the day, to tackle the Soviet Union, one method Western hostile forces adopted was online infiltration in the ideological area. Afterwards, in the Southern Alliance, and a number of countries in Southwest Asia, and North Africa, they played the same tricks: through subverting the online platforms of their target countries, they used means such as garbled statements and palming off the spurious as the genuine to attack their targets, and so by borrowing a knife to kill someone, they eliminated their strategic adversary in the real world.

If hearts are won, there is gladness, if hearts are lost, there is failure. A regime’s disintegration often begins in the ideological area, political upheaval and regime change can happen in the space of a night, but ideological evolution is a long-term process. If the ideological front is broken, other fronts will become difficult to hold. We must grasp the leadership power, management power and discourse power in online ideology work closely in our hands, we cannot let it fall to others at any time, otherwise, we will make irreversible and historical mistakes.

Even so, in comparison with the strategic attacks conducted in an organized, targeted, planned and gradual manner by hostile powers who have dominated online public opinion guidance power for a ling time, a small number of leading cadres in our Army haven’t yet learnt “the art of swimming” in the high waves of the network, they lack a sober understanding and sense of worry concerning the circumstances of the online public opinion struggle, and lack an active understanding and sense of purpose in battling for online “terrain” for the sake of the Party, the country and the Army.

Strengthening online ideology work means safeguarding the highest interest of the country and the nation, and safeguarding the fundamental interests of the people. In the face of this struggle, we cannot and must not retreat, we cannot and must not lose. If we do not give high regard to cybersovereignty, and do not put online ideological work in a high position and grasp it in our hands, the masses will be led astray by the enemy, and the military will face the risk of changing of nature and colour. It may be said that our biggest danger endangers it battlefield, and the most crucial matter is the crux of this battlefield.

It is still necessary to field the main force on this battlefield. In the journey towards a strong country and a strong military, our Army must not only firmly safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests on the tangible traditional battlefield, it must also firmly defend ideological security and political security on the intangible cyber battlefield, this is a task to which we are duty-bound. Only if we act as we did at the time of the Battle of Triangle Hill, are riveted to the most forward position of the battlefield and the fight in this ideological struggle, are online “seed machines and propaganda teams”, and arouse hundreds and thousands in the “Red Army”, will we be able to be good shock troops and fresh troops in the construction of the “Online Great Wall”, and will we be able to endure and vanquish in this protracted, smokeless war.

Army Newspaper: We Can Absolutely Not Allow the Internet Become a Lost Territory of People’s Minds

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This article was published originally on 12 May in the PLA Daily

Since ancient times, those who won people’s minds won all under heaven. Now, the main battleground to contend for people’s minds has shifted towards the Internet.

Mao Zedong said: “Whenever you want to overthrow a regime, you must first create public opinion, you must first do ideological work. This is the case with the revolutionary class, it is also the case with the counterrevolutionary class.” The collapse of a regime often begins in the ideological area, the loss of the ideological area is the most dangerous loss. If a military defence line is not stable, it will break down after one blow, if the ideological defence line is not stable, it will fall of its own accord, even without a blow, “political upheaval and regime change might happen in a single night”. Read the rest of this entry »

Provisions on Admonishment Meetings with Internet News Information Services

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第二条 国家互联网信息办公室、地方互联网信息办公室建立互联网新闻信息服务单位约谈制度。












第十条 本规定由国家互联网信息办公室负责解释,自2015年6月1日起实施。

Notice concerning the Standardization of the Online Reprinting Copyright Order

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In order to implement the CCP Central Committee General Office and State Council General Office “Guiding Opinions concerning Promoting the Converged Development of Traditional Media and New Media”, encourage lawful and sincere business between newspaper and periodical work units and Internet media, promote the establishment and completion of copyright cooperation mechanisms, and standardize the online reprint copyright order, on the basis of the relevant regulations of the “Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China”, the “Copyright Law Implementation Regulations of the People’s Republic of China”, and the “Regulations to Protect the Right of Distribution Through Information Networks”, matters concerning standardizing the online reprint copyright order are hereby notified as follows: Read the rest of this entry »

Some Opinions concerning Deepening Structural and Mechanism Reform and Accelerating the Implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy

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13 March 2015

Innovation is an important force in the progressive development of a country and a nation, and is an important force in promoting the progressive development of the entire human society. In the face of a new round of global scientific and technological revolution and major opportunities and challenges in industrial reform, in the face of the trends, changes and characteristics of a new economic normal, and in the face of the historical tasks and demands of the “Two Centenaries” struggle objectives, we must deepen structural and mechanism reform, accelerate the implementation of the Innovation Driving Development Strategy, the following opinions are hereby put forward. Read the rest of this entry »

Proposal on Upholding Cyber and Information Security

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On 6 February, the Central Leading Group for Cybersecurity and Informatization and China Mobile jointly organized a nationwide conference for cyber and information security, at which China Telecom, China Mobile, People’s Daily Online, Xinhua Online, Qihoo 360 and other such Internet and information technology firms committed to new list of proposals concerning reforming the online environment. These documents mostly have symbolic value, but demonstrate the continuing pressure on enterprises to “identify with” (rentong ) the State’s objectives.

Since the 18th Party Congress, and especially since the establishment of the Central Leading Group for Cybersecurity and Informatization, the Centre has put forward a series of major policies and strategic deployments concerning cybersecurity and informatization work, greatly inspiring internet and information technology enterprises as well as sectoral organizations nationwide. Everyone deeply feels major responsibilities, and shall dare to undertake work, act vigorously, give rein to their own superiorities, and truly make even greater contributions to safeguarding our country’s cyber and information security. To this end, the Chinese Cyberspace Security Association, together with all Internet and information technology enterprises and sectoral organizations publish the following proposal: Read the rest of this entry »

Internet User Account Name Management Regulations

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Article 1: In order to strengthen management over Internet user account names, protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and on the basis of the “State Council Notice concerning Empowering the Cyberspace Administration of China to Be Responsible for Internet Information Content Management Work” and relevant laws and administrative regulations, these Regulations are formulated.

Internet user account names as mentioned in these Regulations, refers to the account names of bodies or individuals registered or used in blogs, microblogs, instant communication tools, forums posting bars, posting comments and other such Internet information services. Read the rest of this entry »

CCP General Office and State Council General Office Opinions concerning Strengthening the Construction of New Types of Think Tanks with Chinese Characteristics

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In order to deeply implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party Congress, strengthen the construction of new types of think tanks with Chinese characteristics and establish and complete a policymaking consultancy system, the following Opinion is formulated.

I, Major significance

(1) New kinds of think tanks with Chinese characteristics are an important support for scientific, democratic and lawful policymaking by the Party and the government. A policymaking consultancy system is an important content of the construction of our country’s Socialist democratic politics. Our Party has always given high regard to policymaking consultancy wok. Since reform and opening up, our country’s think tank construction undertaking has developed rapidly, providing powerful intelligence support to Party and government policymaking. At present, the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society has entered a decisive stage, analysing and explaining difficult questions of reform, development and stability and responding to global issues is complex and difficult without precedent, this urgently requires the completion of a policymaking support system with Chinese characteristics, the forceful strengthening of think tank construction, the support of scientific policymaking through scientific consulting, and the guidance of scientific development through scientific policymaking. Read the rest of this entry »

“Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”

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The “Opinion concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”, published today, is the latest of a series of documents aimed at imposing stricter political discipline and control in China’s academia. The original document has not been published. The following is a translation of Xinhua’s summary.

The Central Committee General Office and the State Council General Office have recently issued the “Opinions concerning Further Strengthening and Improving Propaganda and Ideology Work in Higher Education Under New Circumstances”. The “Opinion” emphatically points out that ideological work is an extremely important work of our Party and our country, higher education is a forward battlefield in ideological work, and shoulders the important tasks of studying, researching and propagating Marxism, fostering and carrying forward the Socialist core value system, and providing talent guarantees and intelligent support for the realization of the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Doing higher education propaganda and ideology work well and strengthening the construction of the higher education ideological battlefields are strategic projects, steadfast projects and projects of casting souls, they relate to Party leadership over higher education, relate to the comprehensive implementation of the Party’s educational policies, relate to successors for the undertaking of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and have an extremely important and profound significance for consolidating the guiding position of Marxism in the ideological area and consolidating a common ideological basis for the united struggle of the entire Party, the entire country and all the people.

The “Opinion” consists of seven parts: I, Strengthening and improving higher education propaganda and ideology work is a major and urgent strategic task; II, guiding ideology, basic principles and main tasks; III, realistically promoting the entry of the theoretical system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics into textbooks, classrooms and minds; IV, Forcefully raising the ideological and political quality of higher education teaching teams; V, incessantly expanding higher education mainstream ideology and public opinion; VI, Striving to strengthen management of the higher education propaganda and ideology battlefield; VII, Realistically strengthening Party leadership over higher education propaganda and ideology work. Read the rest of this entry »

Opinions concerning Stimulating the Development of Cloud Computing Innovation and Fostering New Business Models in the Information Industry

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GF No. (2015)5

All provincial, autonomous region and municipal People’s Governments, all State Council ministries and commissions, all directly subordinate bodies:

Cloud computing is a completely new business model to promote the realization of providing supply according to demand in terms of information technology capability, which stimulates the full use of information technology and data resources, and is a major reform and inevitable trend in informatized development. Developing cloud computing benefits the sharing of information, knowledge and innovation resources, the reduction of start-up costs for the whole society, the fostering and shaping of new industries and new consumption hot spots, and is of great importance for stable growth, structural adjustment, enriching the people’s livelihoods and establishing a new type of country. At present, global cloud computing is in its primary phase of development, and our country faces a rare opportunity, however, there are also problems such as relatively weak service capacity, a relatively large lack in core technology, insufficient openness and sharing of information resources, prominent challenges with information security, etc., construction has been focused on while application has been overlooked, and the sprouts of disorderly development of data centres are beginning to emerge. In order to stimulate the innovation and development of our country’s cloud computing and vigorously foster new business models in the information industry, the following opinions are hereby put forward

I, Guiding ideology, basic principles and development objectives

(1) Guiding ideology.

Adapt to the needs of moving new-type industrialization, informatization, urbanization, agricultural modernization and the modernization of the State’s governing ability forward, take comprehensively deepening reform as driver, take enhancing capabilities and deepening application as main line, perfect development environments, foster backbone enterprises, innovate service models, expand the scope of application, strengthen technology support, guarantee information security, optimize the distribution of facilities, stimulate the innovative development of cloud computing, foster new business models in the innovation industry, ensure that information resources are being used with high efficiency, provide powerful support for start-ups and emerging sectors, and for liberating innovative vitality, and draw out new drivers for the sustained and healthy development of the economy and society. Read the rest of this entry »

Information Technology Development Trends and Ideological Security

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This article was published first in Red Flag Manuscripts on 25 December 2014. 

Giving high regard to and vigorously responding to the opportunities and challenges that scientific and technological development has brought to ideological work is an important experience of our Party in grasping the initiative in ideological work. At present, quite a few problems exist in the area of grasping the initiative in ideological work through our use of the newest achievements in information technology, and we are often reduced to a passive, responsive state. When looking at the reasons for this, the most important ones are that we lack foresight about information technology development trends, we often have countermeasures that resemble mending the stable when the sheep have run, and have few precautionary measures. For instance, where supervision and management of blogs, microblogs, WeChat and other communication tools is concerned, or the control on communication of heretical and terrorist videos is concerned, we have lagged behind the pace of information technology development to a substantial degree, and we have even lagged behind Western hostile powers and terrorists using these technologies. Many countermeasures have been taken when technology is already broadly applied, and we only passively respond when this creates a certain harm to us, this not only means that the resulting harm is difficult to avoid, it also increases the costs of response and causes the work of the Party and the government to become bogged down in passivity. The use of information technology advantages and the newest development achievement to engage in infiltration against our country is a long-term strategy of Western countries with the United States in the lead. Because of this, we must strengthen our foresight, acutely perceive the influence of the newest developments in information technology on ideological work, scientifically predict the newest methods that hostile forces may adopt, and establish response measures on a basis of a scientific prediction and correct grasp of technological development trends.

Read the rest of this entry »

Guiding Opinions concerning Promoting the Healthy Development of Online Literature

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Notice concerning Printing and Issuance of the “Guiding Opinions concerning Promoting the Healthy Development of Online Literature”

All provincial, autonomous and municipal press, publications, radio, film and television bureaus, the Xinjiang Production-Construction Corps Press and Publications Bureau, the Liberation Army General Political Department Propaganda Department Press and Publications Bureau, all Centre and State organs’ ministries and commissions, all democratic parties, all people’s organizations’ press, publications, radio and television controlling departments, the China Publishing Group Co., relevant Internet publishing bodies:

In order to implement the deployments of the 18th Party Congress and the 3rd and 4th Plenums of the 18th Party congress, earnestly implement the spirit of the important speech that General Secretary Xi Jinping grave at the Literature and Art Work Conference, and promote the healthy and orderly development of online literature, the “Guiding Opinions concerning Promoting the Healthy Development of Online Literature” are hereby issued to you, please implement them earnestly. All localities and all relevant departments must fully understand the important significance of stimulating the healthy development of online literature, strengthen organizational leadership, adopt forceful measures, firmly move work forward in all areas, incessantly guide online literature to practice the Socialist core value system, carry forward the true, the good and the beautiful, and disseminate positive energy.

State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television Read the rest of this entry »

National Discourse Power and Information Security against the Background of Economic Globalization

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This article by CAC director Lu Wei was published in People’s Daily in July 2010, when he was vice-director at Xinhua.

Lu Wei (Vice-Director, Xinhua News Agency)

Against the background of economic globalization, the information revolution is currently making global circumstances more complex through its cross-border, cross-organizational and cross-terrain impact. Information flows no longer consist of simple information communication, they guide capital, influence markets and decide on trade. Whoever effectively controls discourse power, grasps the orientation of information circulation. Discourse power and information security have become important symbols of economic soft power and even national soft power.

The meaning of national discourse power and information security.

The word “discourse” originated in cultural linguistics long ago, it refers to the exchange of meanings between a speaker and a recipient by means of language and other such symbols. Following the development of the times, the content and extent of “discourse” have seen a profound expansion of meaning. Once “discourse” is formed, it communicates specific value views, there are specific norms, and specific knowledge systems are built. “Quán” has a double meaning in law, one of “right” and one of “power”, this means that “huayuquan” not only refers to the right to speak but also to the fact that the effectiveness and power of speech must be guaranteed. Read the rest of this entry »

Mutual Trust through Communication, Cooperation through Win-Win

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Speech at the 7th Sino-US Internet Forum

2 December 2014

Lu Wei

Respected madam Catherine Novelli,

Respected misters Craig Mundi, and Shen Xiangyang,

Respected mister Wu Hequan,

Ladies, gentlemen, friends:

Good morning everyone! Today, government representatives and business elites from the Chinese and US Internet circles have come together in Washington, to together welcome the opening of the 7th Sino-US Internet Forum. I represent the Cyberspace Administration of China in sincerely and enthusiastically congratulating the convention of the Forum! And in expressing sincere thanks to the Forum’s sponsors, Microsoft and the Internet Society of China!

Since last year, China’s President XI Jinping and President Obama have grasped general tends and looked towards the future, from the Annenberg “estate meeting” to the “Ocean Platform Meeting” in Zhongnanhai, they have reached an important consensus of together building a new type of great power relations between China and the US, this met with high praise and broad recognition from international society, and pushed relationships between both countries into a new historical phase. Following the rapid advance of Internet developments, cyber relations between China and the US have attracted unprecedented attention and concern, they have expanded from commercial cooperation and people-to-people communication to become a focus point in bilateral relationships, and a focus point for attention from all sides, they have become an important content of a new type of great power relationship between China and the US, influence the future of both countries to a considerable degree. Sino-US cyber relationships in a new era tend generally to be good, and are advancing steadily, but there are some bumps on the path ahead, which mainly present the following two characteristics: Read the rest of this entry »

Beijing Municipality Self-Discipline Convention on Internet Application Programmes and Public Information Services

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This convention was announced on 26 November 2014. According to Xinhua, it was signed by over 50 websites, including Sina, Netease and Sohu. In the Xinhua report, the names of companies such as Baidu and Tencent are conspicuously absent. I have not been able to verify whether they have signed this document or not. 

Following the swift development of the mobile Internet, mobile Internet application programmes (hereafter named apps) have been applied increasingly broadly in areas such as information publication, commercial marketing, social interaction, etc., and their influence in areas such as cultural dissemination, economic growth and social development is growing increasingly large. At the same time, a number of unlawful and harmful phenomena have appeared, such as the use of apps to publish false information, disseminate online rumours, infringe users’ privacy, conduct illegal trading, disseminate obscene and vulgar information, etc., this gravely harms the lawful rights and interests of consumers, and gravely disorders the Internet information dissemination order. In order to standardize and guide apps and public information service activities, promote the healthy and orderly development of the app sector, and stimulate social harmony and national development, this Convention is formulated. Read the rest of this entry »