Fundamentals of National Reconstruction

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Sun Yat-sen

Passed at the First National Congress of the Chinese Nationalist Party on 21 January 1924.

I, The National Government is based on the revolutionary Three Principles of the People, and the Five-Powers Constitution, in order to build the Republic of China.

II, The first matter that must be constructed is the people’s livelihood. Therefore, with regard to the four great needs of the people, food, clothing, housing and movement, the Government should join forces with the people and collaborate in developing agriculture, to ensure sufficient food for the people; collaborate in developing weaving, to provide abundant clothing to the people; build housing of various forms in great project, in order to ensure enjoyable housing for the people; and dredge and repair roads and channels, in order to benefit the people’s movements.

III, The second matter is the people’s power. With regard to the political knowledge and ability of the people, the government shall teach and guide them in the exercise of their right to vote, the exercise of their right to dismiss officials, and the exercise of their right of political initiative.

IV, The third is nationalism. Therefore, with regard to small domestic ethnicities, the Government shall foster them, and ensure that they can enjoy self-determination and autonomy; with regard to foreign aggressive powers, the Government shall resist them. And the same time, treaties with all countries are to be revised, our international equality and national independence is to be restored.

V, The process of construction is divided into three periods; the first is called military rule; the second is called political tutelage, the third is called constitutional government.

VI. During the period of military rule, all institutions will be subordinate to military administration. The government will, on the one hand, use military force to eliminate domestic obstacles; and propagate doctrine on the other hand, in order to civilize the hearts of the people in the entire country and stimulate national unity.

VII, When all provinces are completely pacified, the period of political tutelage will begin, and the period of military rule will end.

VIII, During the period of political tutelage, the government shall assign people who have been trained and qualified through examinations, to go to all counties and assist the people in preparing for autonomy. Its process is to make a clear census of the population in the entire county, completely survey land in the entire county, appropriately arrange for security in the entire county, and successfully build roads that traverse all of the territory; those people who have received instruction on using their four powers, and have completed their duties as citizens, and have sworn to implement revolutionary doctrines may elect county officials, to execute government affairs in a county; they may also elect legislators, to discuss creating laws in a county, and start making it into a completely autonomous county.

IX, Citizens of counties having completed autonomy have the right to directly elect officials, have the right to directly recall officials, have the right to directly formulate laws, and have the right to directly amend laws.

X, When any county begins autonomy, it must first stipulate prices for privately held land in the entire county. The method is that landlords report on this themselves, local governments levy taxes according to prices, and it may requisition land according to price at any time. If, after prices are reported, land increases in value because of political improvements and social progress, the profit should be enjoyed by the people in the entire county, and the original owner may not keep this for himself.

XI, The annual income from land, the gain from land prices, the production of public land, the harvest from mountains, forests, streams and marshes and the benefit from minerals and hydropower, all belong to local governments; and are to be used to manage the cause of the local people, to nurture children, care for the elderly, aid the poor, provide disaster relief, heal the ill and provide for all sorts of public needs.

XII, Where a county’s financial resources cannot develop or initiate its natural resources or large-scale industry and commerce undertakings, and outside capital is required to manage this, the Central government provides assistance; the net profits obtained are to be divided in halves each for the Central and local government.

XIII, All counties shall turn a percentage of their annual income over for annual Central expenditure, to cover the burdens of the Central government, to be determined annually by the citizens’ representatives; it may not be less than ten per cent, and may not be higher than fifty per cent.

XIV, After all counties have established autonomous local governments, they may elect one citizens’ representative, in order to organize the Congress, and participate in Central government affairs.

XV, All those who are candidates for and are appointed to official positions, either at the Centre or in the localities, must undergo Central examinations, and may only [assume office] when their qualifications are determined.

XVI, When the counties in any one province have all completed autonomy, the period of constitutional government begins, the National Congress may elect provincial heads, in order to supervise autonomy in those provinces. With regards to national administration within that province, the province head is to be subject to Central command.

Article XVII, During this period, a balanced power system is adopted with regard to the powers of the Centre and the provinces. All matters that have a national uniform nature, are to be allocated to the Centre; all matters that have a nature of needing to be suited to local conditions, are allocated to the localities; there is to be no bias either for concentrating powers in the Centre or dividing powers to the localities.

XVIII, Counties are autonomous units, provinces sit between the Centre and counties, in order to make contact more effective.

XIX, At the time when constitutional government begins, the Central government shall complete the establishment of the Five Yuans, in order to try out governance according to the Five Powers. The order is as follows: the Administrative Yuan, the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Examination Yuan and the Supervision Yuan.

XX, The following ministries are to be provisionally established under the Administrative Yuan: 1, the Ministry of the Interior; 2, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 3, the Ministry of Military Affairs; 4, the Ministry of Finance; 5, the Ministry of Agriculture and Mining; 6, the Ministry of Industry and Commerce; 7, the Ministry of Education; 8, the Ministry of Communications.

XXI, Until the Constitution is promulgated, all Yuan directors are all appointed, dismissed and commanded by the President.

XXII, The Constitutional Draft is to be negotiated by the Legislative Yuan on the basis of the Fundamentals of National Reconstruction and the achievements of the periods of political tutelage and constitutional governments, it is to be propagated to the masses in the fullness of time, in preparation of its adoption and implementation.

XXIII, When more than half of the provinces nationwide have reached the time when they begin constitutional government, being the period in which local autonomy has been completely established in the entire province, the National Assembly will be convened in order to decide on the Constitution and promulgate it.

XXIV, After the Constitution is promulgated, the Central sovereign power will be exercised by the National Assembly, which means that the National Assembly has the power to elect Central government officials, and the power to recall them; it has the power of initiative concerning Central legislation, and the power to amend law.

XXV, On the date that the Constitution is promulgated, which is the date that constitutional government is heralded, the citizens of the entire county conduct national elections according to the law. The National Government will be dismissed from office three months after the completion of the election, and relinquish government to the government elected by the people, this is when building the nation will have come to completion.

12 April 1924.

 

建国大纲
一、国民政府本革命之三民主义、五权宪法,以建设中华民国。
二、建设之首要在民生。故对于全国人民之食、衣、住、行四大需要,政府当与人民协力,共谋农业之发展,以足民食;共谋织造之发展,以裕民衣;建筑大计划之各式屋舍,以乐民居;修治道路、运河,以利民行。
三、其次为民权。对于人民之政治知识、能力,政府当训导之,以行使其选举权,行使其罢官权,行使其创制权。
四、其三为民族。故对于国内之弱小民族,政府当扶植之,使之能自决自治;对于国外之侵略强权,政府当抵御之。并同时修改各国条约, 恢复我国际平等,国家独立。
五、建设之程序分为三期;一曰军政时期;二曰训政时期;三曰宪政时期。
六、在军政时期,一切制度悉隶于军政之下。政府一面用兵力扫除国内之障碍;一面宣传主义以开化全国之人心,而促进国家之统一。
七、凡一省完全底定之日,则为训政开始之时,而军政停止之日。
八、在训政时期,政府当派曾经训练、考试合格之员,到各县协助人民筹备自治。其程度以全县人口调查清楚,全县土地测量完竣,全县警卫办理妥善,四境纵横之道路修筑成功;而其人民曾受四权使用之训练,而完毕其国民之义务,誓行革命之主义者得选举县官,以执行一县之政事;得选举议员,以议立一县之法律,始成为一完全自治之县。
九、一完全自治之县,其国民有直接选举官员之权,有直接罢免官员之权,有直接创制法律之权,有直接复决法律之权。
十、每县开创自治之时,必须先规定全县私有土地之价。其法由地主自报之,地方政府则照价征税,并可随时照价收买。自此次报价之后,若土地因政治之改良、社会之进步而增价者,则其利益当为全县人民所共享,而原主不得而私之。
十一、土地之岁收,地价之增益,公地之生产,山林川泽之息,矿产水力之利,皆为地方政府之所有;而用以经营地方人民之事业,及育幼、养老、济贫,救灾、医病与夫种种公共之需。
十二、各县之天然富源与及大规模之工商事业,本县之资力不能发展与兴办,而须外资乃能经营者,当由中央政府为之协助;而获之纯利,中央与地方政府各占其半。
十三、各县对于中央政府之负担,当以每县之岁收百分之几为中央岁费,每年由国民代表定之;其限度不得少于百分之十,不得加于百分之五十。
十四、每县地方自治政府成立之后,得选国民代表一员,以组织代表会,参预中央政事。
十五、凡候选及任命官员,无论中央与地方,皆须经中央考试、定资格者乃可。
十六、凡一省全数之县皆达完全自治者,则为宪政开始时期,国民代表会得选举省长,为本省自治之监督。至于该省内之国家行政,则省长受中央之指挥。
十七、在此期间,中央与省之权限采均权制度。凡事务有全国一致之性质者,划归中央;有因地制宜之性质者,划归地方;不偏于中央集权或地方分权。
十八、县为自治之单位,省立于中央与县之间,以收联络之效。
十九、在宪法开始时期,中央政府当完成设立五院,以试行五权之治。其序列如下:曰行政院;曰立法院;曰司法院;曰考试院;曰监察院。
二十、行政院暂设如下各部:一、内政部;二、外交部;三、军政部;四、财政部;五、农矿部;六、工商部;七、教育部;八、交通部。
二十一、宪法未颁布以前,各院长皆归总统任免而督率之。
二十二、宪法草案当本于建国大纲及训政、宪政时期之成绩,由立法院议订,随时宣传于民众以备到时采择施行。
二十三、全国有过半数省分达至宪政开始时期,即全省之地方自治完全成立时期,则开国民大会决定宪法而颁布之。
二十四、宪法颁布之后,中央统治权则归于国民大会行使之,即国民大会对于中央政府官员有选举权,有罢免权;对于中央法律有创制权,有复决权。
二十五、宪法颁布之日,即为宪政告成之时,而全国国民则依宪法行全国大选举。国民政府则于选举完毕之后三个月解职,而授政于民选之政府,是为建国之大功告成。
民国十三年四月十二日

One thought on “Fundamentals of National Reconstruction

    Latest Updates | China Copyright and Media said:
    November 30, 2013 at 9:59 am

    […] Fundamentals of National Reconstruction (Sun Yat-Sen/GMD Central Committee, 1924) […]

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