Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China (Revision Draft)

National Copyright Administration, March 2012

Chapter I: General Principles

Chapter II: Copyright

Section I: Copyright holders and their rights

Section II: Copyright entitlement

Section III: The term of protection of copyright

Chapter III: Related rights

Section I: Publishers

Section II: Performers

Section III: Audio producers

Section IV: Radio stations and television stations

Chapter IV: The limitations of rights

Chapter V: The exercise of rights

Section I: Copyright and related right contracts

Section II: Collective copyright management

Chapter VI: Technological protection measures and rights management information

Chapter VII: The protection of rights

Chapter VIII: Supplementary provisions

Chapter I: General provisions

Article 1: In order to protect the copyright of creators of literary, artistic and scientific works, as well as the related rights of disseminators, encourage the creation and dissemination of works beneficial to the construction of a Socialist spiritual culture and material culture, and stimulate the development and flourishing of Socialist culture, science and economy, in accordance with the Constitution, this Law is formulated.

Article 2: Works of Chinese natural persons, legal persons and other organizations, regardless of whether they are published or not, are protected by this Law.

Works of foreigners and stateless persons are protected by this law on the basis of agreements concluded by their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence with China, or international treaties in which they participate together.

Works of creators from countries not having concluded an agreement with China or not participating together in an international treaty or stateless persons are protected by this law where they are published first in a member state of an international treaty in which China participates, or simultaneously in member states and non-member states.

The page format design, performances, audio works and radio or television programmes of Chinese natural persons, legal persons or other organizations are protected by this Law.

The page format design, performances, audio works and radio or television works of foreigners and stateless persons, are protected by this law on the basis of agreements concluded by their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence with China, or international treaties in which they participate together.

To the right of pursuit, applied artworks, page format design and the rights provided in Article 25 as well as Article 36 of this Law of foreigners and stateless persons, reciprocal protection applies on the basis of the law of their country of nationality or their country of habitual residence.

Article 3: Works as named in this law refers to intellectual achievements in the literary, artistic and scientific sphere, having originality, which can be fixed in some form.

Works include the following categories:

(1) literary works, meaning novels, poetry, prose, theses and other works expressed in written form;

(2) oral works, meaning impromptu speeches, lessons, court arguments and other works expressed in spoken language;

(3) music works, meaning songs, symphonies and other works that can be sung or performed, with lyrics or without lyrics;

(4) dramatic works, meaning plays, operas, local dramas and other works performed on stage;

(5) quyi works, meaning comic dialogue, clappertalk, drum ballads, storytelling and other works with talking and singing as main forms of expression;

(6) dance works, meaning works expressing thoughts and feelings through continuous motions, postures, facial expressions, etc;

(7) acrobatic art works, meaning acrobatics, magic, circus and other works expressed through physical motion and dexterity;

(8) fine artworks, meaning drawings, calligraphy, sculpture and other two-dimensional or three-dimensional plastic artworks constituted of lines, drawings or other forms, having an aesthetic sense;

(9) applied artworks, meaning artworks having a real purpose;

(10) architectural works, meaning works having an aesthetic sense, expressed in the form of buildings or constructions;

(11) photographic works, meaning artworks recording objective bodies the images of with the help of an apparatus on light-sensitive materials or other mediums;

(12) audiovisual works, meaning works fixed on a certain medium, composed of a series of images with accompanying sound or without accompanying sound, and screened with the help of technological equipment or disseminated in other ways;

(13) charts and graphs, meaning engineering and design drawings or product design drawings drawn for engineering or production, as well as maps, schematic diagrams and other works reflecting geographical phenomena, illustrating material principles or structures;

(14) model works, meaning solid works produced for the purpose of display, experimentation, observation, etc., on the basis of the form and structure of objects, according to a certain proportion;

(15) computer programmes, meaning codified instruction sequences for obtaining a certain kind of result, that can be implemented by computers and other devices with information processing capacities, or symbolized instruction sequences or symbolized phrase sequences that may be automatically transformed into code sequences, where the same computer programme source code and object code is the same work;

(16) other literary, artistic and scientific works.

Copyright comes into being from the date of completion of the work, no formality must be performed.

Article 4: Related rights as named in this law, refers to the rights that publishers enjoy over the page layout of books or periodicals that they publish, the rights that performers enjoy over their performances, the rights that audio work producers enjoy over the audio works they produced, and the rights that radio stations and television stations enjoy over the radio and television programmes they transmit.

Related rights come into being from the date of first publication of books or periodicals using the page layout, the first performance occurs, audio works are produced for the first time and radio or television programmes are transmitted for the first time, no formality must be performed.

Article 5: Copyright holders exercising their copyright and related rights holders exercising their related rights may not violate the Constitution and the laws, and may not harm the public interest.

The State conducts supervision and management over the dissemination of works according to the law.

Article 6: Copyright holders and related holders may register their copyright or related rights with the special registration organ established by the State Council administrative copyright management department. The registration documents are preliminary evidence for verification of the registered matter.

Fees shall be paid for registration, fee collection standards are provided by the State Council administrative copyright management department together with the State Council pricing management department.

Copyright and related rights registration management rules are formulated separately by the State Council administrative copyright management department.

Article 7: Copyright protects expression, and does not extend to ideas, processes, principles, mathematical concepts, operational methods, etc.

This Law does not apply to:

(1) Laws and regulations, State organ resolutions, decisions, decrees and other documents having a legislative, administrative or judicial nature, and their official translations;

(2) simple factual information reported through media such as newspapers, periodicals, radio stations, television stations, information networks, etc.;

(3) calendars, common numeral tables, common forms and formulas.

Article 8: Folk literature and art expression protection rules are formulated separately by the State Council.

Article 9: The State Council administrative copyright management department is in charge of nationwide copyright and related rights management work; local People’s Government administrative copyright management departments are in charge of copyright and related rights management work in their administrative areas.

Chapter II: Copyright

Section I: Copyright holders and their rights

Article 10: Copyright holders include:

(1) creators;

(2) other natural persons, legal persons and other organizations enjoying copyright according to this law.

Article 11: Copyright includes personal rights and property rights.

The personal rights of copyright include:

(1) the right of publication, being the right to decide whether or not to make the work known to the public;

(2) the right to sign a name, being the right to decide whether or not to make the identity of the creator known as well as how to make the name of the creator known;

(3) the right to protect the integrity of the work, being the right to revise the work as well as prohibit distortion or falsification of the work.

The property rights of copyright include:

(1) the right of reproduction, being the right to produce one or more copies of the work by printing, reprinting, recording, reproduction as well as digital and any other method;

(2) the right of distribution, being the right to provide the original work or reproductions thereof to the public through selling, donation or other ways of transferring ownership;

(3) the right of rental, being the right to permit other persons to temporarily use original audiovisual works, computer programmes or audio works containing works or reproductions thereof for payment, except where computer programmes are not the main object of rental;

(4) the right of exhibition, being the right to openly display original works of fine art, photographic works or copies thereof;

(5) the right of performance, being the right to openly perform the work in all sorts of ways, as well as to openly broadcast the work in all sorts of manners;

(6) the right of screening, being the right to openly represent fine art, cinematographic or audiovisual works through film projectors, slide projectors and other technological equipment;

(7) the right of transmission, being the right to transmit the work to the public or relay transmissions of the said work through wireless or cable means, as well as to relay transmissions of the said work to the public through technological means;

(8) the right of information network dissemination, being the right to provide the work to the public in an information network environment, through wireless or cable means, including direct broadcast, relay or making it possible for the public to obtain the work at an individually selected time and place;

(9) the right of film production, being the right to produce an audiovisual work of the work;

(10) the right of adaptation, being the right to transform the work into a new work of a different form or different category, other than an audiovisual work;

(11) the right of translation, being the right to translate the work from one spoken or written language into a different spoken or written language;

(12) the right of revision, being the right to conduct augmentation or deletion of computer programmes, or changing instruction or phrase sequences;

(13) the right of pursuit, being the right of creators or their heirs or legatees to, after an original fine artwork or photographic work, or the manuscript of creators or composers is transferred for the first time, share in the profit every time the original work manuscript is sold, the right of pursuit may not be transferred or renounced;

(14) other rights that copyright holders should enjoy.

Protection rules for the information network dissemination right and the right of pursuit are formulated separately by the State Council.

Section II: Copyright entitlement

Article 12: Copyright belongs to the creator, except where this Law provides otherwise.

The natural person creating a work is the creator.

For works organized and invested in by legal persons or other organizations, created to represent the intention of legal persons or other organizations, published under the name of legal persons, other organizations or their representatives, and of which legal persons or other organizations bear responsibility, the legal person or other organization is considered as the creator.

Where there is no evidence to the contrary, the natural person, legal person or other organization signing the work is considered as the creator.

Article 13: New works produced by using existing works through methods such as adaptation, translation, annotation, arrangement, etc., are derivative works, their copyright is enjoyed by the deriver.

For using derivative works, the permission of the copyright holder of the derivative work and the copyright holder of the original work shall be obtained, and remuneration paid.

Article 14: The copyright of works created in cooperation by two or more persons is jointly enjoyed by the creators. Persons not having participated in creation, cannot become cooperative creators.

Where cooperative works may be used in portions, creators may enjoy copyright individually over the part they created, but may not hamper the regular use of the cooperative work in exercising their copyright.

Where cooperative works cannot be used in portions, the copyright is enjoyed jointly by all creators, and exercise through unanimous consultation; where unanimous consultation cannot be reached, and there is no proper reason; no single party may obstruct other sides to use or permit other persons to use the cooperative works, but the income shall be reasonably divided between all cooperative creators.

Where other persons infringe the copyright of cooperative works, any cooperative creator may raise a lawsuit in his own name, but compensation obtained shall be reasonably divided between all cooperative creators.

Article 15: Works compiling numerous works, portions of works or data not constituting works or other materials, that reflect originality in their selection or arrangement of contents, are compilation works, their copyright is enjoyed by the compiler.

For use of compilation works, permission from the copyright holder of the compilation work and the copyright holder of the original work shall be obtained, and remuneration paid.

Article 16: If the parties have not agreed to the contrary in writing, the copyright of audiovisual work is enjoyed by the producer, but playwrights, directors, filmers, lyricists, composers and other creators enjoy the right to sign their name.

Movie producers using scripts, music or other works to produce audiovisual works, shall obtain permission from the creator, and pay remuneration.

Playwrights, lyricists, composers and other creators have the right to obtain reasonable remuneration from producers or other authorized persons using those audiovisual products, except where agreed otherwise in contract.

Creators of scripts, music and other works in audiovisual works that can be used on their own, may exercise their copyright on their own, but may not hamper the regular use of the audiovisual work.

Article 17: Works created by employees in completing their work duties are professional works, their copyright entitlement is to be agreed upon by the parties.

Where there is no agreement or the agreement is unclear, the copyright of professional work is enjoyed by the employee, but the copyright of engineering design drawings, product design drawings, computer programmes, works created by employees of news publishers or press agencies, as well as large-scale dictionaries and other works is enjoyed by the work units, and the creator enjoys the right to sign a name; where the copyright of professional work is enjoyed by employees, the work unit may use the said work in their professional scope free of charge.

Article 18: The copyright of works created on entrustment is to be agreed upon by the entrusting side and the side accepting entrustment.

Where there is no agreement or the agreement is unclear, the copyright is enjoyed by side accepting entrustment, but the entrusting side may use said work within their professional scope free of charge.

Where the parties have not agreed upon a scope of use, the entrusting side may use the said work within the scope of the specific objective for which the work was created free of charge.

Article 19: Ownership transfer of the original copy of a work does not engender transfer of copyright.

The owner of the original copy of fine artworks and photographic works may display the said original copy.

When creators transfer the original copy of fine artworks and photographic works that has not been published to another person, display of the original copy of said work does not constitute infringement of the creator’s right of exhibition.

Article 20: After creators pass away, the right to sign a name and the right to preserve the integrity of the work in their copyright are protected by the heir or legatee of the creator.

Where the are no persons to inherit copyright or no person to accept it as legacy, the right to sign a name and the right to preserve the integrity of the work are protected by the administrative copyright management department.

Article 21: For works not published during the creator’s lifetime, if the creator has not clearly indicated to not publish them, the right of publication is exercised by the heir or legatee for 50 years after the death of the creator; where there is no heir or legatee, the right to publication is exercised by the owner of the original copy of the work.

Article 22: Where copyright belongs to natural persons, after the natural person passes away, and the property rights in copyright are still within the term of protection provided in this Law, they are transferred according to the provisions of inheritance law.

Where copyright belongs to legal persons or other organizations, after legal persons or other organizations change or terminate, and the property rights in copyright are still within the term of protection provided in this Law, they are enjoyed by the legal person or other organization taking over their rights and duties; where there is no legal person or other organization inheriting their rights and duties, they are enjoyed by the State.

Article 23: Where one cooperative creator passes away, and there is no one to inherit or no person to accept as legacy the property rights in copyright he enjoys in cooperative works, they are enjoyed by the other cooperative creators.

Article 24: Of works of which the identity of the creator is not clear, the copyright, apart from the right to sign a name, is exercised by the owner of the original copy of the work. After the identity of the creator is determined, the copyright is exercise by the creator or his heir.

Article 25: For the following works of which the term of protection has not expired, users may apply to use the works with the State Council administrative copyright management department after storing use fees:

(1) those where the identity of the creator is unclear and the owner of the original copy cannot be found after thorough search;

(2) where the identity of the creator is clear but he cannot be found after thorough search.

Concrete matters for the above paragraph, are formulated separately by the State Council administrative copyright management department.

Section III: The term of protection of copyright

Article 26: The term of protection of the right to sign a name and the right to protect the integrity of the work is not subject to limits.

Article 27: For works of natural persons, the term of protection of the right of publication and the property rights in copyright is the life of the creator and fifty years after his death; if it is a cooperative work that cannot be divided in portions, the term of protection is calculated from the death of the last creator.

For works of legal persons or other organizations, or professional works of which the copyright is enjoyed by legal persons or other organizations, the term of protection of the property rights in copyright is 50 years after the first publication, but where works have not been published for 50 years after completion of their creation, this Law no longer protects them.

For audiovisual works, the term of protection of the property rights in copyright is 50 years after the first publication, but where works have not been published for 50 years after completion of their creation, this Law no longer protects them.

For the works in Paragraphs II and III of this Article, the term of protection of the right of publication is 50 years, but where works have not been published for 50 years after completion of their creation, this Law no longer protects them.

For applied artworks, the term of protection of the property rights in copyright is 25 years after the first publication, but where works have not been published for 25 years after completion of their creation, this Law no longer protects them; the term of protection of the right of publication is 25 years, but where works have not been published for 50 years after completion of their creation, this Law no longer protects them.

The term of protection as named in the previous five Paragraphs is to be calculated from 1 January of the year after the death of the creator, first publication of the corresponding work or completion of the creation of the work.

Article 28: For works where the identity of the creator is not clear, the term of protection of the property rights in copyright is 50 years, to be calculated from 1 January of the year after first publication of the said work. After the identity of the creator is determined, the provisions of Article 27 of this Law apply.

Chapter III: Related rights

Section I: Publishers

Article 29: Publishing as named in this law, refers to reproduction and distribution.

Page format design as named in this Law, refers to the design of the layout pattern of books and periodicals, and includes the arrangement of page composition elements such as type pages, way of arrangement, wording, line spacing, titles, quotations as well as punctuation marks, etc.

Article 30: Publishers have the right to permit other persons to use the page format design of books or periodicals they publish.

The term of protection of the rights provided in the previous Paragraph is 10 years to be calculated from 1 January of the year after the book or periodical using said page format design was published for the first time.

Section II: Performers

Article 31: Performers as named in this law, refers to persons or performance work units performing literary or artistic works, or folk literature and art works through declamatory, singing, instrumental performance and other methods.

Article 32: Performance enjoy the following rights over their performances:

(1) indication of the identity of the performer;

(2) protection against distortion of the performer’s image;

(3) permitting other person to transmit their live performances through wireless or cable methods;

(4) permitting other persons to record their performances;

(5) permitting other persons to reproduce, distribute or rent records of their performances or reproductions of the said records;

(6) permitting other persons to provide their performances to the public in an information network environment through wireless or cable methods, or making it possible for the public to obtain the said performance at a time and place selected individually.

The term of protection of the rights provided in clause (1) and clause (2) of the above Paragraph is not subject to limits; the term of the protection of the rights provided in clauses (3) to (6) of the above Paragraph is 50 years, to be calculated from 1 January after the year the performance takes place.

The person receiving permission to use the work in ways provided in clauses (3) to (6) of Paragraph I shall also obtain permission from the copyright holder.

Article 33: If the parties have not agreed to the contrary in writing, the performers’ rights of audiovisual works are enjoyed by the producer, but the performers enjoy the right of indication of their identity.

Producers employing performers to produce an audiovisual work shall conclude a written contract and pay remuneration.

Performers have the right to obtain reasonable remuneration from the producers’ use or authorizing others to use the said audiovisual work, except where agreed otherwise in contract.

Section III: Audio producers

Article 34: Audio products as named in this Law, refers to any work recording the sounds of performances or other sounds.

Record producers as named in this Law, refers to the first producer of audio products.

Article 35: Audio producers enjoy the rights to permit others to reproduce, distribute, rent or provide audio products in an information network environment through wireless or cable methods, or to make it possible for the public to obtain the said audio products at a time and place selected individually, over the audio products they produce.

The term of protection of the rights provided in the previous Paragraph is 50 Years, to be calculated from 1 January of the year after the completion of the production of the audio product.

The person receiving permission to reproduce, distribute, rent or disseminate the audio product to the public through information networks shall also obtain permission from the copyright holder and performer.

Article 36: When audio products are used for transmission through wireless or cable means, or disseminated to the public through technological equipment, performers and audio product producers jointly enjoy the right to obtain reasonable remuneration.

Section IV: Radio stations and television stations

Article 37: Radio and television programmes as named in this law, refers to signals transmitted for the first time by radio stations and television stations that carry content.

Article 38: Radio stations and television stations have the right to prohibit the following actions:

(1) other radio stations and television stations relaying their radio and television programmes through wireless or cable means;

(2) recording their radio and televisions programmes;

(3) reproducing recordings of their radio and television programmes;

(44) disseminating their radio and television programmes to the public in an information network environment through wireless or cable means.

The term of protection of the rights provided in the above Paragraph is 50 years, to be calculated from 1 January of the year after the first transmission of the radio or television programme.

Chapter IV: The limitations of rights

Article 39: According to the provisions of this Law, those using without the permission of copyright holders of their already published works, may not influence the regular use of that work, and may not unreasonably infringe the lawful rights and interests of the rights holder.

Article 40: Under the following circumstances, works may be used without the permission of the copyright holder, and without paying remuneration, but the full name of the copyright holder, the name of the work and the source of the work shall be indicated, and it may not infringe other rights enjoyed by the copyright holder according to this Law:

(1) reproducing one copy of other persons’ already published works for individual study or research;

(2) appropriately using other persons’ already published works in a work, to introduce or discuss a certain work or explain a certain question;

(3) republishing or citing already published works where it is inevitable in media such as newspapers, periodicals, radio, television, etc., in order to report current news;

(4) newspapers, periodicals, radio stations, television stations and other media publishing or transmitting current affairs-type articles concerning political, economic or religious questions already published in other newspapers, periodicals, radio stations, television stations and other media, except where the creator has indicated his disallowance of publishing or transmission;

(5) newspapers, periodicals, radio stations, television station and other media publishing or transmitting speeches made in public assemblies, except where the creator has indicated his disallowance of publishing or transmission;

(6) translating or in small quantities reproducing already published works for classroom teaching or scientific research, for the use of teaching or research personnel; but these may not be published or distributed;

(7) State organs using already published works for implementing their duties within a reasonable scope;

(8) libraries, archives, memorial halls, museums, art galleries, etc., reproducing  the works stored in these facilities in order to display or preserve editions;

(9) free of charge performance of already published works, where the said performance does not collect fees from the audience, and no remuneration is paid to the performers;

(10) copying, painting or photographing artworks installed or exhibited in outdoors public venues;

(11) translating already published Mandarin spoken or written language works of Chinese natural persons, legal persons or other organizations into ethnic minority spoken or written language works for domestic publishing and distribution;

(12) translating already published works into Braille for publication.

Article 41: Lawfully authorized users of computer programmes may engage in the following activities:

(1) installing the said computer on computers and other devices having information processing capacity on the basis of requirements for use;

(2) producing back-up reproductions to prevent damage to the computer programme. This sort of back-up reproductions may not be provided to other persons from use in any way, and when that person loses lawful authorization, he is responsible for the destruction of back-up reproductions;

(3) conducting necessary alterations in order to use the said computer programme in a real applied computing environment or improve its functions or functioning; without permission of the copyright holder of the said programme, the revised programme may not be provided to third parties in any way.

Article 42: In order to study and research the design thinking and principles that computer programmes contain, those using computer programmes through installation, display, transmission, storage or other means, may go without the permission of the copyright holder of the computer programme, and do not pay remuneration to them.

Article 43: When lawfully authorized users of computer programmes cannot obtain necessary compatibility information through regular channels, they may reproduce and translate the content of the part related to compatibility information in the said computer programme, without permission of the copyright holder of the said computer programme.

For using the information obtained according to the provisions of the above Paragraph, the use objective of computer programme compatibility may not be exceeded, it may not be used to develop, produce or sell virtually similar computer programmes, and may not be used for any activity infringing copyright.

Article 44: Textbooks compiled in order to implement the nine-years compulsory education system and State education planning, it is permitted to compile portions of already published works or small literary works or music works, or single fine artworks, photographic works or graphs in the textbook without permission of the copyright holders, according to the conditions provided in Article 48 of this Law.

Article 45: After literary works of Chinese natural persons, legal persons or other organizations are published in newspapers or periodicals, other newspapers and periodicals may reprint them or publish them in digests or materials without permission of the creator, according to the conditions provided in Article 48 of this Law.

Newspapers and periodicals enjoy exclusive publishing rights over works they publish according to the authorization of the creator, and where they have made an indication in a clear position in newspapers or periodicals they publish, other newspapers and periodicals may not reprint or publish them.

Article 46: Three months after audio works have been published for the first time, other audio producers may use audio products to produce audio products without permission of the copyright holder, according to the conditions provided in Article 48 of this Law.

Article 47: Radio stations and television stations may transmit already published works without permission of the copyright holder, according to the conditions provided in Article 48 of this law; but where broadcasting other persons’ audiovisual works, they shall obtain permission from the producer.

Article 48: According to the provisions of Article 44, Article 45, Article 46, and Article 47 of this Law, use of already published works without permission of the copyright holder must conform to the following conditions:

(1) applying or filing with the State Council administrative copyright management department before use;

(2) indicating the full name of the creator, name of the work and source of the work at the time of use;

(3) paying use fees to collective copyright management organizations appointed by the State Council administrative copyright management department within one month of use, and at the same time, reporting the name of the used work, the full name of the creators, the source of the work and other corresponding information.

Where users apply for statutory licence filing, the State Council administrative copyright management department shall announce filing information on its official website.

Collective copyright management organizations shall timely transfer the fees mentioned in the first Paragraph to the corresponding rights holders, and establish work use situation consulting systems for rights holders to consult the work use situation and fee payment situation free of charge.

Chapter V: The exercise of rights

Section I: Copyright and related rights contracts

Article 49: Copyright holders may use the property rights in copyright through permission, transfer, establishment of pledges or in other legally permitted manners.

Article 50: For use of other persons’ works, a permission of use contract shall be concluded with the copyright holder, except where the provisions of this Law permit not obtaining permission.

Permission of use contracts contain the following main content:

(1) the name of the work;

(2) the rights categories and use methods permitted to be used;

(3) whether or not the rights permitted to be used are exclusive use rights or non-exclusive use rights;

(4) the geographical scope and period in which use is permitted;

(5) remuneration payment standards and methods;

(6) liability for breach of contract;

(7) other content that both sides believe should be agreed upon.

Remuneration payments for use of works may be agreed upon by the parties, where the parties have no agreement or the agreement is unclear, remuneration is paid according to the market price or the remuneration standards formulated by the State Council administrative copyright management department together with other relevant department.

Article 51: For use of other persons’ works, where the rights permitted to be used are exclusive rights, it shall be laid down in written form.

Where it is not clearly agreed upon in the contract that the rights permitted to be used are exclusive rights, it shall be considered that the rights permitted to be used are non-exclusive rights.

Where it is agreed upon in the contract that the rights permitted to be used are exclusive rights, but the content of the exclusive rights have not been agreed upon or the agreement is unclear, it shall be considered that the person receiving permission has the right to exclude any person, including the copyright holder, to use the work in any similar way.

Where newspapers or periodicals sign an exclusive publishing rights contract with creators, the exclusive publishing right period may not exceed one year.

Article 52: Where it is agreed in book publishing contracts that book publishers enjoy exclusive publishing rights but the concrete content is not clarified, it shall be considered as book publishers enjoying the exclusive rights to publish books on the basis an original edition or revised edition of the similar written language within the geographical scope agreed upon in the contract, and during the validity term of the contract.

Article 53: Where book publishers reprint or republish works, they shall notify the copyright holder, and pay remuneration.

Where book publishers refuse to reprint or republish, after a book is sold out, copyright holders have the right to terminate the contract. Two order forms that have not been implemented within six months, sent by contract holders to book publishers, are considered as books being sold out.

Article 54: For performing other persons’ works, performance organizers or performance work units shall obtain authorization from the copyright holder.

Article 55: For transferring property rights in copyright, a written contract shall be concluded.

Rights transfer contracts shall contain the following main content:

(1) the name of the work;

(2) the categories of transferred rights and their geographical scope;

(3) the transfer sum;

(4) the day and method of payment and transfer;

(5) liability for breach of contract;

(6) other content that both sides believe should be agreed upon.

Article 56: Rights not having been clearly permitted or transferred by copyright holders in permission of use contracts and transfer contracts, without the agreement of the copyright holder, may not be exercised by the person receiving permission.

Without the agreement of the copyright holder, the person receiving permission may not permit third parties to exercise the same right.

Article 57: Those concluding exclusive licence contracts or transfer contracts with copyright holders, are permitted to register with the special registration organs established by the State Council administrative copyright management department. Registered exclusive licence contracts and transfer contracts, may be invoked against third parties.

Fees shall be paid for contract registrations, fee collection standards shall be formulated by the State Council administrative copyright management department together with the State Council pricing management department.

Article 57: In case of pawning copyright, the pawning person and the pawnee conduct pawning registration with the State Council administrative copyright management department. Fees shall be paid for copyright pawning registration, fee collection standards shall be formulated by the State Council administrative copyright management department together with the State Council pricing management department and financial management department.

Section II, Collective copyright management

Article 59: Collective copyright management organizations are non-profit organizations exercising copyright or related rights in a collective management manner, on the basis of authorization of copyright holders and related rights holders or legal provisions.

When collective copyright management organizations manage rights, they may advocate rights under their own name for copyright holders and related rights holders, and may act as a party in conducting copyright or related rights litigation or arbitration activities.

The State Council administrative copyright management department is responsible for collective copyright management organization examination, approval, supervision and management.

Article 60: Where collective copyright management organizations obtain authorization from rights holders and can represent the interests of rights holders at a nationwide level, they may apply with the State Council administrative copyright management department to represent all rights holders in exercising copyright or related rights, except where rights holders indicate disallowance of collective management in writing.

Article 61: Authorized use fee standards for collective copyright management organizations are published and implemented by the State Council administrative copyright management department, where there is objection, the State Council administrative copyright management department organizes a special committee to adjudicate, the adjudication is the final outcome, and during the adjudication period, fee standard implementation will not cease.

Article 62: Where two or more collective copyright management organizations obtain use fees for the same use method or the same user, they shall consult and determine in advance that one collective management organization collects them uniformly , except where the parties have agreed otherwise in contract.

Article 63: Collective copyright management organizations’ establishment method, rights and duties, copyright permission fee collection and distribution, supervision and management, authorized use fee collection objection adjudication, and other matters are provided for separately by the State Council.

Chapter VI: Technological protection measures and rights management information.

Article 64: Technological protection measures as named in this Law, refers to effective technologies, devices or components that rights holders adopt in order to prevent or limit their works, performances, audio products or computer programmes being reproduced, scanned, enjoyed, operated or disseminated through information networks.

Digital management information as named in this Law, refers to information explaining the work and its creator, performance or its performers, audio product or producer, the information on rights holders of works, performances and audio products, information on use conditions, as well as digital information or code indicating the above information.

Article 65: In order to protect copyright and related rights, rights holders may adopt technological protection measures.

No organization or individual may wilfully avoid or destroy technological protection measures, may wilfully produce, import or provide to the public installations or components mainly used to avoid or destroy technological protection measures, may wilfully provide technological services to other persons to avoid or destroy technological protection measures, except where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise.

Article 66; Without permission of the right holder, the following activities may not be conducted:

(1) Wilful deletion or change of rights management information, except where it is impossible to avoid deleting or changing them because of technological reasons;

(2) proving works, performances or audio products to the public of which it is known or should be known that the rights management information has been deleted or changed without permission of the rights holder.

Article 67: Under the following circumstances, technological protection measures may be avoided, but the technology, devices or components for avoiding technological protection measures may not be provided to other persons:

(1) providing works, performances or audio products to small numbers of teachers or researchers for classroom teaching or scientific research, and it is impossible to obtain the said work, performance or audio product through regular channels;

(2) with no aim of profit, providing already published literary works to blind people in unique methods that blind persons can perceive, and it is impossible to obtain the said work through normal channels;

(3) State organs implementing their duties according to administrative or judicial procedure;

(4) testing the security of computers and their systems or networks.

Chapter VII: The protection of rights

Article 68: Those infringing copyright or related rights or violating duties concerning technological protection measures or rights management information as provided in this Law, shall bear civil responsibility to cease the infringement, cancel the influence, make a formal apology, compensate damage, etc.

Article 69: When network service providers provide storage, search, linking and other purely technological network services to network users, they do not bear a duty to examine for information concerning copyright or related rights.

Where network users utilize  network services to conduct activities infringing copyright or related rights, the infringed person may notify the network service provider in writing, and require it to adopt necessary measures such as deletion, shielding, breaking links, etc. Where the network service provider adopts the necessary measures timely after receipt of the notification, it does not bear responsibility for compensation; where it does not timely adopt the necessary measures, it bears joint responsibility with the said network user.

Where network service providers know or should know that network users use their network services to infringe copyright, and do not adopt necessary measures, they bear joint liability with the said network users.

Article 70: Where users pay remuneration to collective copyright management organizations according to the contract concluded with collective copyright management organizations or statutory provisions, and a lawsuit is raised by the rights holder concerning the same right and the same use method, they do not bear responsibility for compensation, but shall cease the use, and pay remuneration according to the corresponding collective management use fee standards.

Article 71: Where computer programme reproduction holders do not know and also do not have reasonable grounds to know that the said programme is an infringing reproduction, they do not bear responsibility for compensation; but they shall cease the use and destroy the said infringing reproduction. If ceasing the use and destroying the said infringing reproduction creates major damage to the user of the reproduction, the user of the reproduction may continue the use after paying a reasonable use fee to the copyright holder of the computer programme.

Article 72: Where copyright or infringing rights are infringed, the infringer shall compensate the rights holder according to the real damage; where the real damage is hard to calculate, compensation may be granted on the basis of the unlawful income of the infringer. Where the real damage to the rights holder or the unlawful income of the infringer are hard to determine; a reasonable multiple will be calculated with reference to the common trading cost of the right. The compensation amount shall include the reasonable expenses incurred by the rights holder in order to cease the infringing activity.

Where the real damage to the rights holder, the unlawful income of the infringer and the common trading cost of the right are all hard to determine, and the copyright or related rights are gathered, exclusive licensing contracts or transfer contacts are registered, the People’s Courts decide to impose a compensation of 1 million Yuan or less, on the basis of the circumstances of the infringing activity.

To those wilfully infringing copyright or related rights two times or more, the compensation amount will be calculated on the basis of one to three times the compensation values in the previous two Paragraphs.

Article 73: Where the following infringing activities destroy the Socialist market order at the same time, the administrative copyright management department may order cessation of the infringing activities, confiscate unlawful income, confiscate or destroy infringing reproductions, and may impose a fine; where circumstances are grave, the administrative copyright management department may also order the confiscation of materials, tools, equipment, etc., mainly used in producing infringing reproductions; where it constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility is investigated according to the law:

(1) without permission of the copyright holder, reproducing, distributing, renting, performing, screening, transmitting or disseminating their works to the public through information networks, except where this Law provides otherwise;

(2) using the works of others in violation of the provisions of Article 48 of this Law;

(3) publishing books of which other persons enjoy an exclusive publication right;

(4) without permission of the performer, transmitting or recording their performances, reproducing, distributing or renting audio products recording their performances, or disseminating their performances to the public through information networks;

(5) without permission of the audio producer, reproducing, distributing, renting or dissemination their audio products to the public through information networks, except where this Law provides otherwise;

(6) without permission of radio stations or television stations, relaying, recording, reproducing or disseminating their radio or television products to the public through information networks, except where this Law provides otherwise;

(7) producing or selling works passing off another person’s signature.

Article 74: Concerning the following unlawful activities, the administrative copyright management department may impose a warning, confiscate unlawful income, and confiscate devices or components mainly used in avoiding or destroying technological protection measures; where circumstances are grave, confiscate the corresponding materials, tools and equipment and may impose a fine; where it constitutes a crime, criminal responsibility is investigated according to the law:

(1) without permission, wilfully avoiding or destroying technological protection measures adopted by rights holder, except where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise;

(2) without permission, wilfully producing, importing or providing devices or components mainly used in avoiding or destroying technological protection measures to other persons, or wilfully providing technological services to avoid or destroy technological measures to other persons;

(3) without permission, wilfully deleting or changing digital management information, except where laws and administrative regulations provide otherwise;

(4) without permission, and where it is known or should be known that rights management information are deleted or changed, still reproducing, distributing, publishing, performing, screening, transmitting, or disseminating  corresponding works, performances and audio products to the public through information networks.

Article 75: When administrative copyright management departments conduct investigation and prosecution of suspected unlawful activities related to copyright or related rights, they may inquire related parties, and investigate situations related to the suspected unlawful activities; conduct on-the-spot inspection of the location of the parties’ suspected unlawful activities; consult and reproduce contracts, invoices, accounts as well as other materials related to the suspected unlawful activity; inspect products related to the suspected unlawful activity, and may seal up or detain products suspected to infringe copyright or related rights.

When administrative copyright management departments implement their duties as provided in the above Paragraph, the parties shall grant support and cooperation, those refusing, obstructing or delaying the provision of materials of the above Paragraph without proper grounds, may be subject to warning by the administrative copyright management departments, where circumstances are grave, corresponding materials, tools and equipment are confiscated.

Article 76: Where the parties refuse to obey administrative punishment, they may apply for administrative redress with the related government organ within 60 days of the day of receiving the administrative punishment decision letter, or raise a lawsuit with the People’s Courts within three months of the day of receiving the administrative punishment decision letter, if no administrative redress is applied for or a lawsuit is raised, and the verdict is not carried out, the administrative copyright management department may apply for implementation with the People’s Court.

Article 77: Where creators cannot prove that their  reproduction activities are lawfully authorized, network users cannot prove that the works or reproductions they disseminate to the public through information networks are lawfully authorized, renters cannot prove that the audiovisual products, computer programmes or audio products they rent are lawfully authorized, as well as distributors cannot prove that the reproductions they distribute have a lawful source, they shall bear civil or administrative legal responsibility.

Article 78: Where copyright holders or related rights holders have evidence to prove that other persons are carrying out or are about to carry out activities infringing there rights, that if not timely stopped may cause damage to their lawful rights and interests that is hard to remedy, they may apply with the People’s Court before suing to adopt measures to cease the relevant activities and preserve property.

When People’s Courts deal with applications under the above Paragraph, the provisions of Articles 93 to 96 and Article 99 of the “Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China” apply.

Article 79: In order to prevent infringing activities, and under conditions where evidence may be lost or hard to obtain in the future, copyright holders or related rights holders may apply with the People’s Courts before suing to preserve evidence .

After the People’s Courts receive applications, they must give a ruling within 48 hours; where it is ruled to adopt evidence preservation measures, their implementation shall begin immediately.

People’s Courts may order the applicant to provide a bond, where the applicant does not provide a bond, the application is rejected.

Where the applicant does not sue within 15 days of the People’s Court adopting evidence preservation measures, the People’s Court shall remove the preservation measures.

Article 80: People’s Courts hearing cases, they may confiscate the unlawful income, infringing reproductions as well as the property used to conduct the unlawful activities of those infringing copyright or related rights.

Article 81: Where parties do not implement their contractual duties or do not implement their contractual duties conform to the conditions agreed upon, they shall bear civil responsibility according to relevant laws and regulations such as the “General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China” and the “Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China”.

Article 82: Parties in copyright and related rights disputes may apply for arbitration with an administration organ according to the “Arbitration Law of the People’s Republic of China”, sue with the People’s Courts, and may also apply for administrative mediation.

Article 83: Administrative copyright management departments establish copyright dispute mediation committees, to be responsible for mediating in copyright and related rights disputes. Mediation agreements have legal binding force, where one party does not perform the mediation agreement, the other party may apply with the People’s Courts for  confirmation and coercive enforcement.

The composition, mediation procedures as well as other matters concerning copyright mediation committees, will be provided separately by State Council administrative copyright management departments.

Article 84: Copyright holders and related rights holders may apply with Customs to investigate and prosecutes works that are imported or exported and suspected of infringing their copyright or related rights. Concrete rules are provided separately by the State Council.

Chapter V: Supplementary Provisions

Article 85: Copyright as named in this law also refers to author’s rights.

Article 86: The provisions of this law relating to copyright also apply to the limits and exercise of corresponding rights.

Article 87: The rights of copyright holders and related rights holders as provided in this Law, where they have not already exceeded the term of protection provided in this Law at the day this Law took effect, are protected according to this Law.

Infringing activities or breaches of contract occurring before this Law took effect, are dealt with according to the relevant regulations and policies of the time the infringing act or breach of contract took place.

Article 88: This Law takes effect on 1 June 1991.
中华人民共和国著作权法
(修改草案)
(国家版权局   2012年3月)

第一章  总则
第二章  著作权
第一节  著作权人及其权利
第二节  著作权的归属
第三节  著作权的保护期 1
第三章  相关权
第一节  出版者
第二节  表演者
第三节  录音制作者
第四节  广播电台、电视台
第四章  权利的限制
第五章  权利的行使
第一节  著作权和相关权合同
第二节  著作权集体管理
第六章  技术保护措施和权利管理信息
第七章  权利的保护
第八章  附则

第一章  总则
第一条  为保护文学、艺术和科学作品作者的著作权,以及传播者的相关权,鼓励有益于社会主义精神文明、物质文明建设的作品的创作和传播,促进社会主义文化、科学和经济的发展与繁荣,根据宪法制定本法。
第二条  中国自然人、法人或者其他组织的作品,不论是否发表,受本法保护。
外国人、无国籍人的作品,根据其作者所属国或者经常居住地国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,受本法保护。
未与中国签订协议或者共同参加国际条约的国家的作者和无国籍人的作品,首次在中国参加的国际条约的成员国出版的,或者在成员国和非成员国同时出版的,受本法保护。
中国自然人、法人或者其他组织的版式设计、表演、录音制品和广播电视节目,受本法保护。
外国人、无国籍人的版式设计、表演、录音制品和广播电视节目,根据其所属国或者经常居住地国同中国签订的协议或者共同参加的国际条约,受本法保护。
外国人、无国籍人的追续权、实用艺术作品、版式设计、本法第二十五条以及第三十六条规定的权利,根据其所属国或者经常居住地国的法律适用对等保护。
第三条  本法所称的作品,是指文学、艺术和科学领域内具有独创性并能以某种形式固定的智力成果。
作品包括以下种类:
(一)文字作品,是指小说、诗词、散文、论文等以文字形式表现的作品;
(二)口述作品,是指即兴的演说、授课、法庭辩论等以口头语言形式表现的作品;
(三)音乐作品,是指歌曲、交响乐等能够演唱或者演奏的带词或者不带词的作品;
(四)戏剧作品,是指话剧、歌剧、地方戏等供舞台演出的作品;
(五)曲艺作品,是指相声、快书、大鼓、评书等以说唱为主要形式表演的作品;
(六)舞蹈作品,是指通过连续的动作、姿势、表情等表现思想情感的作品;
(七)杂技艺术作品,是指杂技、魔术、马戏等通过形体动作和技巧表现的作品;
(八)美术作品,是指绘画、书法、雕塑等以线条、色彩或者其他方式构成的有审美意义的平面或者立体的造型艺术作品;
(九)实用艺术作品,是指具有实际用途的艺术作品;
(十)建筑作品,是指以建筑物或者构筑物形式表现的有审美意义的作品;
(十一)摄影作品,是指借助器械在感光材料或者其他介质上记录客观物体形象的艺术作品;
(十二)视听作品,是指固定在一定介质上,由一系列有伴音或者无伴音的画面组成,并且借助技术设备放映或者以其他方式传播的作品;
(十三)图形作品,是指为施工、生产绘制的工程设计图、产品设计图,以及反映地理现象、说明事物原理或者结构的地图、示意图等作品;
(十四)模型作品,是指为展示、试验或者观测等用途,根据物体的形状和结构,按照一定比例制成的立体作品;
(十五)计算机程序,是指为了得到某种结果而可以由计算机等具有信息处理能力的装置执行的代码化指令序列,或者可以被自动转换成代码化指令序列的符号化指令序列或者符号化语句序列,同一计算机程序的源程序和目标程序为同一作品;
(十六)其他文学、艺术和科学作品。
著作权自作品创作完成之日起自动产生,无需履行任何手续。
第四条  本法所称的相关权,指出版者对其出版的图书或者期刊的版式设计享有的权利,表演者对其表演享有的权利,录音制作者对其制作的录音制品享有的权利,广播电台、电视台对其播放的广播电视节目享有的权利。
相关权自使用版式设计的图书或者期刊首次出版、表演发生、录音制品首次制作和广播电视节目首次播放之日起自动产生,无需履行任何手续。
第五条  著作权人行使著作权、相关权人行使相关权,不得违反宪法和法律,不得损害公共利益。
国家对作品的传播依法进行监督管理。
第六条  著作权人和相关权人可以向国务院著作权行政管理部门设立的专门登记机构进行著作权或者相关权登记。登记文书是登记事项属实的初步证明。
登记应当缴纳费用,收费标准由国务院著作权行政管理部门会同国务院价格管理部门确定。
著作权和相关权登记管理办法由国务院著作权行政管理部门另行制定。
第七条  著作权保护及于表达,不延及思想、过程、原理、数学概念、操作方法等。
本法不适用于:
(一)法律、法规,国家机关的决议、决定、命令和其他具有立法、行政、司法性质的文件,及其官方正式译文;
(二)通过报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台、信息网络等媒体报道的单纯事实消息;
(三)历法、通用数表、通用表格和公式。
第八条  民间文学艺术表达的保护办法由国务院另行规定。
第九条  国务院著作权行政管理部门主管全国的著作权和相关权管理工作;地方人民政府著作权行政管理部门主管本行政区域的著作权和相关权管理工作。
第二章  著作权
第一节  著作权人及其权利
第十条  著作权人包括:
(一)作者;
(二)其他依照本法享有著作权的自然人、法人或者其他组织。
第十一条  著作权包括人身权利和财产权利。
著作权中的人身权利包括:
(一)发表权,即决定作品是否公之于众的权利;
(二)署名权,即决定是否表明作者身份以及如何表明作者身份的权利;
(三)保护作品完整权,即修改作品以及禁止歪曲、篡改作品的权利。
著作权中的财产权利包括:
(一)复制权,即以印刷、复印、录制、翻拍以及数字化等任何方式将作品制作一份或者多份的权利;
(二)发行权,即以出售、赠与或者其他转让所有权的方式向公众提供作品的原件或者复制件的权利;
(三)出租权,即有偿许可他人临时使用视听作品、计算机程序或者包含作品的录音制品的原件或者复制件的权利,计算机程序不是出租的主要标的的除外;
(四)展览权,即公开陈列美术作品、摄影作品的原件或者复制件的权利;
(五)表演权,即以各种方式公开表演作品,以及用各种手段公开播送作品的表演的权利;
(六)放映权,即通过放映机、幻灯机等技术设备公开再现美术、摄影、视听作品等的权利;
(七)播放权,即以无线或者有线方式向公众播放作品或者转播该作品的播放,以及通过技术设备向公众传播该作品的播放的权利;
(八)信息网络传播权,即在信息网络环境下,以无线或者有线方式向公众提供作品,包括直播、转播或者使公众可以在其个人选定的时间和地点获得作品的权利;
(九)摄制权,即将作品摄制成视听作品的权利;
(十)改编权,即将作品转换成除视听作品以外的不同体裁或者种类的新作品的权利;
(十一)翻译权,即将作品从一种语言文字转换成另一种语言文字的权利;
(十二)修改权,即对计算机程序进行增补、删节,或者改变指令、语句顺序的权利;
(十三)追续权,即美术作品、摄影作品的原件或者作家、作曲家的手稿首次转让后,作者或者其继承人、受遗赠人对该原件或者手稿的每一次转售享有分享收益的权利,追续权不得转让或者放弃;
(十四)应当由著作权人享有的其他权利。
信息网络传播权、追续权的保护办法由国务院另行规定。
第二节  著作权的归属
第十二条  著作权属于作者,本法另有规定的除外。
创作作品的自然人是作者。
由法人或者其他组织主持和投资,代表法人或者其他组织意志创作,以法人、其他组织或者其代表人名义发表,并由法人或者其他组织承担责任的作品,法人或者其他组织视为作者。
如无相反证明,在作品上署名的自然人、法人或者其他组织为作者。
第十三条  以改编、翻译、注释、整理等方式利用已有作品而产生的新作品为演绎作品,其著作权由演绎者享有。
使用演绎作品应当取得演绎作品的著作权人和原作品著作权人许可,并支付报酬。
第十四条 两人以上合作创作的作品,著作权由合作作者共同享有。没有参加创作的人,不能成为合作作者。
合作作品可以分割使用的,作者对各自创作的部分可以单独享有著作权,但行使著作权时不得妨碍合作作品的正常使用。
合作作品不可以分割使用的,其著作权由各合作作者共同享有,通过协商一致行使;不能协商一致,又无正当理由的,任何一方不得阻止他方使用或者许可他人使用合作作品,但是所得收益应当合理分配给所有合作作者。
他人侵犯合作作品著作权的,任何合作作者可以以自己的名义提起诉讼,但其所获得的赔偿应当合理分配给所有合作作者。
第十五条  汇编若干作品、作品的片段或者不构成作品的数据或者其他材料,对其内容的选择或者编排体现独创性的作品,为汇编作品,其著作权由汇编人享有。
使用汇编作品应当取得汇编作品的著作权人和原作品著作权人许可,并支付报酬。
第十六条  如当事人无相反书面约定,视听作品著作权由制片者享有,但编剧、导演、摄影、作词、作曲等作者享有署名权。
制片者使用剧本、音乐等作品摄制视听作品,应当取得作者的许可, 并支付报酬。
编剧、作词、作曲等作者有权就制片者使用或授权他人使用该视听作品获得合理报酬,合同另有约定除外。
视听作品中可以单独使用的剧本、音乐等作品,作者可以单独行使著作权,但不得妨碍视听作品的正常使用。
第十七条  职工为完成工作任务所创作的作品为职务作品,其著作权归属由当事人约定。
如无约定或者约定不明的,职务作品的著作权由职工享有,但工程设计图、产品设计图、计算机程序、受聘于报刊社或者通讯社创作的作品、以及大型辞书等作品的著作权由单位享有,作者享有署名权;职务作品的著作权由职工享有的,单位可以在其业务范围内免费使用该作品。
第十八条  受委托创作的作品,其著作权归属由委托人和受托人约定。
如无约定或者约定不明的,著作权由受托人享有,但委托人在约定的使用范围内可以免费使用该作品。当事人没有约定使用范围的,委托人可以在委托创作的特定目的范围内免费使用该作品。
第十九条  作品原件所有权的移转,不产生著作权的移转。
美术作品、摄影作品原件的所有人可以展览该原件。
作者将未发表的美术作品、摄影作品原件转让给他人,受让人展览该原件不构成对作者发表权的侵犯。
第二十条  作者死亡后,其著作权中的署名权和保护作品完整权由作者的继承人或受遗赠人保护。
著作权无人继承又无人受遗赠的,其署名权权和保护作品完整权由著作权行政管理部门保护。
第二十一条  作者生前未发表的作品,如果作者未明确表示不发表,作者死亡后五十年内,其发表权可由其继承人或受遗赠人行使;没有继承人又无人受遗赠的,其发表权由作品原件的所有人行使。
第二十二条  著作权属于自然人的,自然人死亡后,著作权中的财产权利在本法规定的保护期内,依照继承法的规定转移。
著作权属于法人或者其他组织的,法人或者其他组织变更、终止后,著作权中的财产权利在本法规定的保护期内,由承受其权利义务的法人或者其他组织享有;没有承受其权利义务的法人或者其他组织的,由国家享有。
第二十三条  合作作者之一死亡后,其对合作作品享有的著作权中的财产权利无人继承又无人受遗赠的,由其他合作作者享有。
第二十四条  作者身份不明的作品,其著作权除署名权外由作品原件的所有人行使。作者身份确定后,其著作权由作者或者其继承人行使。
第二十五条  下列著作权的保护期尚未届满的作品,使用者可以向国务院著作权行政管理部门申请提存使用费后使用作品:
(一)作者身份不明且作品原件的所有人经尽力查找无果的;
(二)作者身份确定但经尽力查找无果的。
前款具体事项,由国务院著作权行政管理部门另行规定。
第三节  著作权的保护期
第二十六条  署名权、保护作品完整权的保护期不受限制。
第二十七条  自然人的作品,其发表权、著作权中的财产权利的保护期为作者终身及其死亡后五十年;如果是不可分割的合作作品,其保护期计算以最后死亡的作者为准。
法人或者其他组织的作品、著作权由法人或者其他组织享有的职务作品,其著作权中的财产权利的保护期为首次发表后五十年,但作品自创作完成后五十年内未发表的,本法不再保护。
视听作品,其著作权中的财产权利的保护期为首次发表后五十年,但作品自创作完成后五十年内未发表的,本法不再保护。
本条第二、三款作品,其发表权的保护期为五十年,但作品自创作完成后五十年内未发表的,本法不再保护。
实用艺术作品,其著作权中的财产权利的保护期为首次发表后二十五年,但作品自创作完成后二十五年内未发表的,本法不再保护;其发表权的保护期为二十五年,但作品自创作完成后二十五年内未发表的,本法不再保护。
前五款所称的保护期,自作者死亡、相关作品首次发表或者作品创作完成后次年1月1日起算。
第二十八条  作者身份不明的作品,其著作权中的财产权利的保护期为五十年,自该作品首次发表后次年1月1日起算。作者身份确定后适用本法第二十七条规定。
第三章  相关权
第一节  出版者
第二十九条  本法所称的出版,是指复制并发行。
本法所称的版式设计,是指对图书和期刊的版面格式的设计,包括对版心、排式、用字、行距、标题、引文以及标点符号等版面布局因素的安排。
第三十条  出版者有权许可他人使用其出版的图书、期刊的版式设计。
前款规定的权利的保护期为十年,自使用该版式设计的图书或者期刊首次出版后次年1月1日起算。
第二节  表演者
第三十一条  本法所称的表演者,是指以朗诵、歌唱、演奏以及其他方式表演文学艺术作品或民间文学艺术的人或者演出单位。
第三十二条  表演者对其表演享有下列权利:
(一)表明表演者身份;
(二)保护表演形象不受歪曲;
(三)许可他人以无线或者有线方式播放其现场表演;
(四)许可他人录制其表演;
(五)许可他人复制、发行、出租其表演的录制品或者该录制品的复制品;
(六)许可他人在信息网络环境下通过无线或者有线的方式向公众提供其表演,使该表演可为公众在其个人选定的时间和地点获得。
前款第(一)项、第(二)项规定的权利的保护期不受限制;第(三)项至第(六)项规定的权利的保护期为五十年,自该表演发生后次年1月1日起算。
被许可人以第一款第(三)项至第(六)项规定的方式使用作品,还应当取得著作权人许可。
第三十三条  如当事人无相反书面约定,视听作品中的表演者权利由制片者享有,但表演者享有表明表演者身份的权利。
制片者聘用表演者摄制视听作品,应当签订书面合同并支付报酬。
表演者有权就制片者使用或授权他人使用该视听作品获得合理报酬,合同另有约定除外。
第三节  录音制作者
第三十四条  本法所称的录音制品,是指任何对表演的声音和其他声音的录制品。
本法所称的录音制作者,是指录音制品的首次制作人。
第三十五条  录音制作者对其制作的录音制品享有许可他人复制、发行、出租、在信息网络环境下通过无线或者有线的方式向公众提供录音制品使公众可以在其个人选定的时间和地点获得该录音制品的权利。
前款规定的权利的保护期为五十年,自录音制品首次制作完成后次年1月1日起算。
被许可人复制、发行、出租、通过信息网络向公众传播录音制品,还应当取得著作权人、表演者许可。
第三十六条  将录音制品用于无线或者有线播放,或者通过技术设备向公众传播,表演者和录音制品制作者共同享有获得合理报酬的权利。
第四节  广播电台、电视台
第三十七条  本法所称的广播电视节目,是指广播电台、电视台首次播放的载有内容的信号。
第三十八条  广播电台、电视台有权禁止以下行为:
(一)其他广播电台、电视台以无线或者有线方式转播其广播电视节目;
(二)录制其广播电视节目;
(三)复制其广播电视节目的录制品;
(四)在信息网络环境下通过无线或者有线的方式向公众转播其广播电视节目。
前款规定的权利的保护期为五十年,自广播电视节目首次播放后的次年1月1日起算。
第四章  权利的限制
第三十九条  依照本法规定,不经著作权人许可使用其已经发表作品的,不得影响该作品的正常使用,也不得不合理地侵害著作权人的合法权益。
第四十条  在下列情况下使用作品,可以不经著作权人许可,不向其支付报酬,但应当指明作者姓名、作品名称、作品出处,并且不得侵犯著作权人依照本法享有的其他权利:
(一)为个人学习、研究,复制一份他人已经发表的作品;
(二)为介绍、评论某一作品或者说明某一问题,在作品中适当引用他人已经发表的作品;
(三)为报道时事新闻,在报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台等媒体中不可避免地再现或者引用已经发表的作品;
(四)报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台等媒体刊登或者播放其他报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台等媒体已经发表的关于政治、经济、宗教问题的时事性文章,但作者声明不许刊登、播放的除外;
(五)报纸、期刊、广播电台、电视台等媒体刊登或者播放在公众集会上发表的讲话,但作者声明不许刊登、播放的除外;
(六)为学校课堂教学或者科学研究,翻译或者少量复制已经发表的作品,供教学或者科研人员使用,但不得出版发行;
(七)国家机关为执行公务在合理范围内使用已经发表的作品;
(八)图书馆、档案馆、纪念馆、博物馆、美术馆等为陈列或者保存版本的需要,复制本馆收藏的作品;
(九)免费表演已经发表的作品,该表演未向公众收取费用,也未向表演者支付报酬;
(十)对设置或者陈列在室外公共场所的艺术作品进行临摹、绘画、摄制;
(十一)将中国自然人、法人或者其他组织已经发表的以汉语言文字创作的作品翻译成少数民族语言文字作品在国内出版发行;
(十二)将已经发表的作品改成盲文出版。
第四十一条  计算机程序的合法授权使用者可以从事以下行为:
(一)根据使用的需要把该程序装入计算机等具有信息处理能力的装置内;
(二)为了防止计算机程序损坏而制作备份复制件。这些备份复制件不得通过任何方式提供给他人使用,并在本人丧失合法授权时,负责将备份复制件销毁;
(三)为了把该程序用于实际的计算机应用环境或者改进其功能、性能而进行必要的修改;未经该程序的著作权人许可,不得向任何第三方提供修改后的程序。
第四十二条  为了学习和研究计算机程序内含的设计思想和原理,通过安装、显示、传输或者存储等方式使用计算机程序的,可以不经计算机程序著作权人许可,不向其支付报酬。
第四十三条  计算机程序的合法授权使用者在通过正常途径无法获取必要的兼容性信息时,可以不经该程序著作权人许可,复制和翻译该程序中与兼容性信息有关的部分内容。
适用前款规定获取的信息,不得超出计算机程序兼容的目的使用,不得提供给他人,不得用于开发、生产或销售实质性相似的计算机程序,不得用于任何侵犯著作权的行为。
第四十四条  为实施九年制义务教育和国家教育规划而编写教科书,可以依照本法第四十八条规定的条件,不经著作权人许可,在教科书中汇编已经发表的作品片段或者短小的文字作品、音乐作品或者单幅的美术作品、摄影作品、图形作品。
第四十五条  中国自然人、法人和其他组织的文字作品在报刊上刊登后,其他报刊可以依照本法第四十八条规定的条件,不经作者许可进行转载或者作为文摘、资料刊登。
报刊对其刊登的作品根据作者的授权享有专有出版权,并在其出版的报刊显著位置作出声明的,其他报刊不得进行转载或刊登。
第四十六条  录音制品首次出版3个月后,其他录音制作者可以依照本法第四十八条规定的条件,不经著作权人许可,使用其音乐作品制作录音制品。
第四十七条  广播电台、电视台可以依照本法第四十八条规定的条件,不经著作权人许可,播放其已经发表的作品;但播放他人的视听作品,应当取得制片者许可。
第四十八条  根据本法第四十四条、第四十五条、第四十六条和第四十七条的规定,不经著作权人许可使用其已发表的作品,必须符合下列条件:
(一)在使用前向国务院著作权行政管理部门申请备案;
(二)在使用时指明作者姓名、作品名称和作品出处;
(三)在使用后一个月内按照国务院著作权行政管理部门制定的标准向著作权集体管理组织支付使用费,同时报送使用作品的作品名称、作者姓名和作品出处等相关信息。
使用者申请法定许可备案的,国务院著作权行政管理部门应在其官方网站公告备案信息。
著作权集体管理组织应当将第一款所述使用费及时转付给相关权利人,并建立作品使用情况查询系统供权利人免费查询作品使用情况和使用费支付情况。
第五章  权利的行使
第一节  著作权和相关权合同
第四十九条  著作权人可以通过许可、转让、设立质权或者法律允许的其他形式利用著作权中的财产权利。
第五十条  使用他人作品应当同著作权人订立许可使用合同,本法规定可以不经许可的除外。
许可使用合同包括下列主要内容:
(一)作品名称;
(二)许可使用的权利种类和使用方式;
(三)许可使用的权利是专有使用权或者非专有使用权;
(四)许可使用的地域范围、期间;
(五)付酬标准和办法;
(六)违约责任;
(七)双方认为需要约定的其他内容。
使用作品的付酬标准可以由当事人约定,当事人没有约定或者约定不明的,按照市场价格或者国务院著作权行政管理部门会同有关部门制定的付酬标准支付报酬。
第五十一条  使用他人作品,许可使用的权利是专有使用权的,应当采取书面形式。
合同中未明确约定许可使用的权利是专有使用权的,视为许可使用的权利为非专有使用权。
合同中约定许可使用的权利是专有使用权,但对专有使用权的内容没有约定或者约定不明的,视为被许可人有权排除包括著作权人在内的任何人以同样的方式使用作品。
报刊与作者签订专有出版权合同的,专有出版权的期限不得超过一年。
第五十二条  图书出版合同中约定图书出版者享有专有出版权但没有明确其具体内容的,视为图书出版者享有在合同有效期内和在合同约定的地域范围内以同种文字的原版、修订版出版图书的专有权利。
第五十三条  图书出版者重印、再版作品的,应当通知著作权人,并支付报酬。
图书脱销后,图书出版者拒绝重印、再版的,著作权人有权终止合同。著作权人寄给图书出版者的两份订单在6个月内未得到履行,视为图书脱销。
第五十四条  表演他人作品的,应当由演出组织者或者演出单位取得著作权人授权。
第五十五条  转让著作权中的财产权利,应当订立书面合同。
权利转让合同包括下列主要内容:
(一)作品的名称;
(二)转让的权利种类、地域范围;
(三)转让金;
(四)交付转让金的日期和方式;
(五)违约责任;
(六)双方认为需要约定的其他内容。
第五十六条  许可使用合同和转让合同中著作权人未明确许可、转让的权利,未经著作权人同意,被许可人不得行使。
未经著作权人同意,被许可人不得许可第三人行使同一权利。
第五十七条  与著作权人订立专有许可合同或转让合同的,可以向国务院著作权行政管理部门设立的专门登记机构登记。经登记的专有许可合同和转让合同,可以对抗第三人。
合同登记应当缴纳费用,收费标准由国务院著作权行政管理部门会同国务院价格管理部门确定。
第五十八条  以著作权出质的,由出质人和质权人向国务院著作权行政管理部门办理出质登记。著作权出质登记应当缴纳费用,收费标准由国务院著作权行政管理部门会同国务院价格管理部门、财政管理部门确定。
第二节  著作权集体管理
第五十九条  著作权集体管理组织是根据著作权人和相关权人的授权或者法律规定,以集体管理的方式行使著作权或者相关权的非营利性组织。
著作权集体管理组织管理权利时,可以以自己的名义为著作权人和相关权人主张权利,并可以作为当事人进行著作权或者相关权的诉讼、仲裁活动。
国务院著作权行政管理部门负责著作权集体管理组织的审批和监督管理。
第六十条  著作权集体管理组织取得权利人授权并能在全国范围代表权利人利益的,可以向国务院著作权行政管理部门申请代表全体权利人行使著作权或者相关权,权利人书面声明不得集体管理的除外。
第六十一条  著作权集体管理组织的授权使用收费标准由国务院著作权行政管理部门公告实施,有异议的,由国务院著作权行政管理部门组织专门委员会裁定,裁定为最终结果,裁定期间收费标准不停止执行。
第六十二条  两个以上著作权集体管理组织就同一使用方式向同一使用者收取使用费的,应当事先协商确定由一个集体管理组织统一收取,但当事人另有约定的除外。
第六十三条  著作权集体管理组织的设立方式、权利义务、著作权许可使用费的收取和分配,对其监督和管理,授权使用收费标准异议裁定等事宜由国务院另行规定。
第六章  技术保护措施和权利管理信息
第六十四条  本法所称的技术保护措施,是指权利人为防止、限制其作品、表演、录音制品或者计算机程序被复制、浏览、欣赏、运行或者通过信息网络传播而采取的有效技术、装置或者部件。
本法所称的权利管理信息,是指说明作品及其作者、表演及其表演者、录音制品及其制作者的信息,作品、表演、录音制品权利人的信息和使用条件的信息,以及表示上述信息的数字或者代码。
第六十五条  为保护著作权和相关权,权利人可以采用技术保护措施。
任何组织或者个人不得故意避开或者破坏技术保护措施,不得故意制造、进口或者向公众提供主要用于避开或者破坏技术保护措施的装置或部件,不得故意为他人避开或者破坏技术保护措施提供技术服务,但是法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。
第六十六条  未经权利人许可,不得进行下列行为:
(一)故意删除或者改变权利管理信息,但由于技术上的原因无法避免删除或者改变的除外;
(二)向公众提供知道或者应当知道未经权利人许可被删除或者改变权利管理信息的作品、表演、录音制品。
第六十七条  下列情形可以避开技术保护措施,但不得向他人提供避开技术保护措施的技术、装置或者部件,不得侵犯权利人依法享有的其他权利:
(一)为学校课堂教学或者科学研究,向少数教学、科研人员提供已经发表的作品、表演、录音制品,而该作品、表演、录音制品无法通过正常途径获取;
(二)不以营利为目的,以盲人能够感知的独特方式向盲人提供已经发表的文字作品,而该作品无法通过正常途径获取;
(三)国家机关依照行政、司法程序执行公务;
(四)对计算机及其系统或者网络的安全性能进行测试。
第七章  权利的保护
第六十八条  侵犯著作权或者相关权,违反本法规定的技术保护措施或者权利管理信息义务的,应当承担停止侵害、消除影响、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失等民事责任。
第六十九条  网络服务提供者为网络用户提供存储、搜索或者链接等单纯网络技术服务时,不承担与著作权或相关权有关的信息审查义务。
网络用户利用网络服务实施侵犯著作权或者相关权行为的,被侵权人可以书面通知网络服务提供者,要求其采取删除、屏蔽、断开链接等必要措施。网络服务提供者接到通知后及时采取必要措施的,不承担赔偿责任;未及时采取必要措施的,与该网络用户承担连带责任。
网络服务提供者知道或者应当知道网络用户利用其网络服务侵害著作权,未采取必要措施的,与该网络用户承担连带责任。
第七十条  使用者依照与著作权集体管理组织签订的合同或法律规定向著作权集体管理组织支付报酬的,对权利人就同一权利和同一使用方式提起诉讼,不承担赔偿责任,但应当停止使用,并按照相应的集体管理使用费标准支付报酬。
第七十一条  计算机程序的复制件持有人不知道也没有合理理由知道该程序是侵权复制件的,不承担赔偿责任;但是应当停止使用、销毁该侵权复制件。如果停止使用并销毁该侵权复制件将给复制件使用人造成重大损失的,复制件使用人可以在向计算机程序著作权人支付合理费用后继续使用。
第七十二条  侵犯著作权或者相关权的,侵权人应当按照权利人的实际损失给予赔偿;实际损失难以计算的,可以按照侵权人的违法所得给予赔偿。权利人的实际损失或者侵权人的违法所得难以确定的,参照通常的权利交易费用的合理倍数确定。赔偿数额应当包括权利人为制止侵权行为所支付的合理开支。
权利人的实际损失、侵权人的违法所得和通常的权利交易费用均难以确定,并且经著作权或者相关权登记、专有许可合同或者转让合同登记的,由人民法院根据侵权行为的情节,判决给予一百万元以下的赔偿。
对于两次以上故意侵犯著作权或者相关权的,应当根据前两款赔偿数额的一至三倍确定赔偿数额。
第七十三条  下列侵权行为,同时破坏社会主义市场经济秩序的,可以由著作权行政管理部门责令停止侵权行为,没收违法所得,没收、销毁侵权复制品,并可处以罚款;情节严重的,著作权行政管理部门还可以没收主要用于制作侵权复制件的材料、工具、设备等;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
(一)未经著作权人许可,复制、发行、出租、表演、放映、播放、通过信息网络向公众传播其作品的,本法另有规定的除外;
(二)违反本法第四十八条规定使用他人作品的;
(三)出版他人享有专有出版权的图书的;
(四)未经表演者许可,播放、录制其表演,复制、发行、出租录有其表演的录音制品,或者通过信息网络向公众传播其表演的,本法另有规定的除外;
(五)未经录音制作者许可,复制、发行、出租、通过信息网络向公众传播其制作的录音制品的,本法另有规定的除外;
(六)未经广播电台、电视台许可,转播、录制、复制、通过信息网络向公众传播其广播电视节目的,本法另有规定的除外;
(七)制作、出售假冒他人署名的作品的。
第七十四条  下列违法行为,可以由著作权行政管理部门予以警告,没收违法所得,没收主要用于避开、破坏技术保护措施的装置或者部件;情节严重的,没收相关的材料、工具和设备,并可处以罚款;构成犯罪的,依法追究刑事责任:
(一)未经许可,故意避开或者破坏权利人采取的技术保护措施的,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外;
(二)未经许可,故意制造、进口或者向他人提供主要用于避开、破坏技术保护措施的装置或者部件,或者故意为他人提供避开或者破坏技术保护措施提供技术服务的;
(三)未经许可,故意删除或者改变权利管理信息的,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外;
(四)未经许可,知道或者应当知道权利管理信息被删除或者改变,仍然复制、发行、出租、表演、放映、播放、通过信息网络向公众传播相关作品、表演和录音制品的。
第七十五条  著作权行政管理部门对与著作权或者相关权有关的涉嫌违法行为进行查处时,可以询问有关当事人,调查与涉嫌违法行为有关的情况;对当事人涉嫌违法行为的场所实施现场检查;查阅、复制与涉嫌违法行为有关的合同、发票、账簿以及其他有关资料;检查与涉嫌违法行为有关的产品,对于涉嫌侵犯著作权或者相关权的产品,可以查封或者扣押。
著作权行政管理部门依法行使前款规定的职权时,当事人应当予以协助、配合,无正当理由拒绝、阻挠或者拖延提供前款材料的,可以由著作权行政管理部门予以警告;情节严重的,没收相关的材料、工具和设备。
第七十六条  当事人对行政处罚不服的,可以自收到行政处罚决定书之日起六十日内向有关行政机关申请行政复议,或者自收到行政处罚决定书之日起三个月内向人民法院提起诉讼,期满不申请行政复议或者提起诉讼,又不履行的,著作权行政管理部门可以申请人民法院执行。
第七十七条  制作者不能证明其复制行为有合法授权,网络用户不能证明其通过信息网络向公众传播的作品或者复制件有合法授权,出租者不能证明其出租的视听作品、计算机程序或者录音制品有合法授权,以及发行者不能证明其发行的复制件有合法来源的,应当承担民事或者行政法律责任。
第七十八条  著作权人或者相关权人有证据证明他人正在实施或者即将实施侵犯其权利的行为,如不及时制止将会使其合法权益受到难以弥补的损害的,可以在起诉前向人民法院申请采取责令停止有关行为和财产保全的措施。
人民法院处理前款申请,适用《中华人民共和国民事诉讼法》第九十三条至第九十六条和第九十九条的规定。
第七十九条  为制止侵权行为,在证据可能灭失或者以后难以取得的情况下,著作权人或者相关权人可以在起诉前向人民法院申请保全证据。
人民法院接受申请后,必须在四十八小时内作出裁定;裁定采取保全措施的,应当立即开始执行。
人民法院可以责令申请人提供担保,申请人不提供担保的,驳回申请。
申请人在人民法院采取保全措施后十五日内不起诉的,人民法院应当解除保全措施。
第八十条  人民法院审理案件,对于侵犯著作权或者相关权的,可以没收违法所得、侵权复制品以及进行违法活动的财物。
第八十一条  当事人不履行合同义务或者履行合同义务不符合约定条件的,应当依照《中华人民共和国民法通则》、《中华人民共和国合同法》等有关法律规定承担民事责任。
第八十二条  著作权和相关权纠纷的当事人可以按照《中华人民共和国仲裁法》向仲裁机构申请仲裁,或者向人民法院起诉,也可以申请行政调解。
第八十三条  著作权行政管理部门设立著作权纠纷调解委员会,负责著作权和相关权纠纷的调解。调解协议具有法律拘束力,一方当事人不履行调解协议的,另一方当事人可以申请人民法院司法确认和强制执行。
著作权调解委员会的组成、调解程序以及其他事项,由国务院著作权行政管理机关另行规定。
第八十四条  著作权人和相关权人对进口或者出口涉嫌侵害其著作权或者相关权的物品,可以申请海关查处。具体办法由国务院另行规定。
第八章  附则
第八十五条  本法所称的著作权即版权。
第八十六条  相关权的限制和行使适用本法中著作权的相关规定。
第八十七条  本法规定的著作权人和相关权人的权利,在本法施行之日尚未超过本法规定的保护期的,依照本法予以保护。
本法施行前发生的侵权或者违约行为,依照侵权或者违约行为发生时的有关规定和政策处理。
第八十八条  本法自1991年6月1日起施行。

About these ads

One thought on “Copyright Law of the People’s Republic of China (Revision Draft)

  1. Pingback: LIMITATIONS AND EXCEPTIONS TO COPYRIGHT IN CHINA: A MIXED BAG FOR FAIR-USE ADVOCATES IN THE NEWEST COPYRIGHT LAW DRAFT » infojustice

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s