Today, we have convened a Work Conference for Cybersecurity and Informatization. I have always wanted to have this Conference. Since the 18th Party Conference, our country’s Internet undertaking has developed rapidly, cybersecurity and informatization work is moving forward steadily, we are gaining clear progress and achievements, and at the same time, a fair few shortcomings and problems exist. We have convened this Conference because we want to openly hear everyone’s opinions and suggestions, jointly explore some ways and means, in order to ensure that we can do our work ever better.
Just now, the comrades spoke very well, they analysed the new circumstances and new trends in the development of the Internet at present, they presented the new technologies and new tendencies in the development of informatization, and put forward very good opinions and suggestions, I feel greatly enlightened having listened to them. Their remarks reflect a pragmatic attitude, an innovative spirit and a strong sense of responsibility, they also reflect relatively high theoretical and practical levels in the area of the Internet, and are of great help in our improving our work. Relevant departments must earnestly research everyone’s opinions and suggestions, and absorb what they can absorb as much as possible. Next, I would like to discuss a few opinions, and exchange them with everyone.
As for the first points, I will discuss promoting the development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking, and let the Internet enrich the people even better.
Having listened to everyone’s remarks, I have a general feeling, which is that where the Internet is concerned, although our country is a late arrival, and has only linked up with the international Internet for 20 years, we are nevertheless correctly handling the relationships between security and development, openness and self-reliance, management and service, and we have obtained achievements in Internet development that have attracted everyone’s gaze. Now, the Internet is increasingly becoming a new space for people to study, work and live, and is increasingly becoming a new platform to obtain public services. Our country has 700 million netizens, this is an amazing number, and is an amazing achievement.
Looking from the history of social development, humankind has experienced the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution, and is currently experiencing the information revolution. The agricultural revolution strengthened humanity’s ability to subsist, ensured that humanity could march from hunting and gathering to growing and breeding, and could march from an uncivilized age to a civilized society. The industrial revolution expanded humanity’s physical strength, replaced human strength with machinery, and large-scale factory construction replaced handwork production in individual workshops. Now, the information revolution is strengthening humanity’s thinking strength, it is bringing another qualitative leap in productivity, and engenders a profound influence on international politics, economics, culture, society, ecology and military affairs.
In the current and subsequent period, the objective of our country’s development is realizing the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective. I have said that building a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist modern country, and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream, are the greatest dreams of the Chinese people since the Opium War, and are the highest and most fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. Today, our 1.3 billion people are all struggling, in the final analysis, to realize this magnificent objective.
Our country once was an economic power in the world, but afterwards, when the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and profound changes happened worldwide, it lost a historical opportunity to progress together with the world, and progressively declined into a passive and defeated plight. Especially after the Opium War, the Chinese nation sank into a miserable situation of poverty and weakness, and let itself be trampled on. When we think about this part of history, we feel profound pain in our hearts. But after the efforts of successive generations, we have never been so close to realizing the objective of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as today, and we have never had more confidence and more ability to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as today. This is an important historical opportunity for the Chinese nation, we must grasp it tightly, and must never lose such a historical opportunity again. This is the historical responsibility of this generation of ours, and is our responsibility towards the Chinese nation, it is our responsibility towards our ancestors, and is our responsibility towards posterity.
The 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress put forward the new development ideas of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing, these have been put forward on the basis of a profound summary of the experiences and lessons of development at home and abroad, and a profound analysis of the overall trends of domestic and foreign development, they are the concentrated reflection of our Party’s new understanding of our country’s economic and social development laws. Promoting our country’s economic and social development according to new development ideas is a general requirement and overall trend for our country’s development in the present and future period. The ancients said: “He inaugurates works in accordance with the times, accomplishes merits by means of resources, and employs the utilities of the myriad things to get profits out of them”. The development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking must adapt to this overall trend. Generally speaking, the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking represents new productive forces and a new development direction, we should also be able to make a step forward in practicing new development ideas.
Our country’s economic development has entered a new normal, the new normal requires new drivers, and the Internet can have great potential in this area. We are implementing the “Internet Plus” action plan, which has spurred all of society to arouse a new wave of innovation and entrepreneurialism, and the information economy’s proportion of our country’s gross domestic product is rising incessantly. In the present world, informatization is developing rapidly, those who do not move forward will fall behind, and those who move too slowly also fall behind. We must strengthen the construction of our information infrastructure, strengthen the deep integration of information resources, and open up information “arteries” for economic and social development. The 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress and the “13th Five-Year Plan” outline have provided deployments for the implementation of the strong cyber country strategy, the “Internet Plus” action plan, the big data strategy, etc., we must realistically implement these well, strive to promote the converged development of the Internet and the real economy, drive technology flows, talent flows and material flows through information flows, stimulate the optimization of resource allocation, stimulate the improvement of the productivity of all factors, and play a vigorous role in promoting innovative development, the transformation of economic development methods and the adjustment of economic structures.
For the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking to develop, we must implement the development idea of people being central. This is an important viewpoint put forward at the 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. We must adapt to the people’s expectations and requirements, accelerate the universalization of informatized services, reduce application costs, provide information services that the common people can use, can afford to use and can use well, and let hundreds of millions of people have an ever greater sense of gain in sharing the development fruits of the Internet. In comparison with cities, the construction of rural Internet infrastructure is our shortcoming. We must expand investment, accelerate the pace of rural Internet construction, and broaden the effective coverage of glass fibre networks and broadband networks in rural regions. We may accomplish this great work of the deep convergence of informatization and industrialization, develop smart manufacturing, and promote that ever more people innovate and establish start-ups; we may aim the direction of the main attack in agricultural modernization, raise the smartness levels of agricultural production levels, the networking levels of trading, and assist the broad peasants to expand their incomes; we may give rein to the superiority of the Internet, implement “Internet Plus Education”, “Internet Plus Healthcare”, Internet Plus Culture”, etc., to stimulate the equalization of basic public services, we may give rein to the role of the Internet in assisting storming the fortifications of poverty relief, move forward with precise poverty aid, precise poverty relief, let ever more masses in difficulties start to use the Internet, let agricultural products leave villages through the Internet, and let children in remote mountain valleys also enjoy an excellent education; we may accelerate moving forward with e-government, encourage all levels’ government departments to break through information barriers and enhance their service efficiency, so that the masses need to do less legwork and information does more legwork, in order to resolve the problems that arranging matters is difficult, slow and complex, etc. There are many things that we can do in these areas, some Internet enterprises have already engaged in trials, and have gained relatively good economic effects and social effects.
Some experts have put forward that problems exist in our national governance, including insufficient information sharing, resource planning and work coordination, which has constrained the efficiency of national governance and public service levels. These problems must be deeply researched. We put forward that we must move forward the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, information is an important basis for national governance and we must give rein to its important role in this process. We must use informatization to move forward the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, comprehensively plan the development of e-government, build uniform online service platforms, move forward the construction of new types of smart cities forward in a hierarchical and categorized manner, break through information barriers, build nationwide information resource sharing systems, and even better use informatized means to sense social circumstances, unblock communication channels and assist scientific policymaking.
On the second question, I will discuss the construction of a good online ecology, and giving rein to the role of the network in guiding public opinion and reflecting the popular will.
The Internet is a large social information platform, hundreds of millions of netizens use it to obtain information and exchange information, this may engender a great influence on the channels through which they seek knowledge, their way of thinking and their value view, and it may especially have a great influence on their views about the country, society, work and life.
To realize the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective, all of society must act with one heart in all areas, the people of all ethnicities in the entire country must direct their hearts to the same place, and direct their energies to the same place. If a society has no common ideals and no common objectives, if it has no common value view, and is tumultuous every day, nothing will ever be accomplished. Our country has 1.3 billion people, if it would turn into such a situation, it would not agree with the people’s interests, and would not agree with the country’s interests.
The work of concentrating a consensus is not easy, everyone must strive together. In order to realize our goals, online and offline must become concentric circles. What are concentric circles? It means to mobilize the people of all ethnicities in the entire country under the leadership of the Party, and mobilize the vigour on all sides, to jointly struggle to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
The ancients said: “Those who know the roof leaks are under it, those who know a government’s failures are in the grasslands. [Translator’s note: the term “grasslands” refers to the common citizenry] Many netizens see themselves as the “grass roots”, and so the network is a “grassland” of the present. Netizens come from among the common people, the common people have gone online, and so popular opinion has gone online. Wherever the masses are, there our leading cadres must go, if they don’t, how would they link up with the masses? All levels’ Party and government bodies and leading cadres must learn to march the mass line through the network, regularly go online to watch, try the water, have a chat, say a little something, understand what the masses think and want, collect good ideas and good suggestions, vigorously response to the concerns of netizens, and dispel their doubts. To be good at using the network to understand the popular will and do one’s work is a basic skill for leading cadres to do their work well under new circumstances. All levels’ cadres and especially leading cadres must incessantly improve this skill.
The absolute majority of netizens are common masses, they come from everywhere, they all have different experiences, their viewpoints and ideas are certainly varied and multifarious, we cannot demand that they all look at problems in precisely the same way, or speak so correctly. We must be a bit more tolerant and patient, we must timely accept constructive opinions, timely help in case of difficulties, timely explain matters to those who do not understand the situation, timely clear up muddled understandings, timely dissolve grievances and complaints, timely provide guidance and redress where viewpoints are mistaken, we must let the Internet become a new platform for us to communicate with the masses, become a new channel to understand the masses, stay close to the masses and eliminate worry and difficulty for the masses, and become a new channel to carry forward the people’s democracy and accept the people’s supervision.
Cyberspace is a common spiritual garden for hundreds of millions of people. Having a clear sky and crisp air, having a good ecology in cyberspace conforms to the people’s interests. A pestilent atmosphere and a deteriorating ecology in cyberspace do not conform to the people’s interest. No one would be willing to live in a space that is full of falsehoods, fraud, attacks, jeering, terror, sex and violence. The Internet is not a land outside the law. The use of the internet to play up subversion of the national regime, to stir up religious extremism, to propagate ethnic separatist thought, to instigate violent and terrorist activities, these acts must be firmly curbed and attacked, we can absolutely not let them have their way. The use of networks to engage in fraudulent activities, to disseminate sexual material, to engage in personal attacks, to sell illegal goods, etc., these words and deeds must also be firmly brought under control, we can also absolutely not let them have their way. There isn’t any country that would permit such acts to spread unchecked. We must with, an attitude of responsibility towards society and responsibility towards the people, lawfully strengthen governance in cyberspace, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen online positive propaganda, foster a positive, healthy, upward and benevolent online culture, use the Socialist core value view and the excellent achievements of human civilization to nourish people’s hearts and nourish society, ensure that positive energy is plentiful, the main melody soars, and a cyberspace with a crisp wind and a correct air is created for the broad netizens and especially the young.
Creating a good online public opinion environment dos not only mean that there can be one voice or one tune, but it means that we cannot fiddle with right and wrong, confound black and white, spread rumours to create trouble, break the law and commit crime, we cannot exceed the boundaries of the Constitution and the laws. I have often stressed that we must lock power into a cage of rules, and one important method is giving rein to the role of public opinion supervision including Internet supervision. On this matter, all levels’ Party and government bodies and leading cadres must pay special attention, and must do it well with priority. We should not only welcome Internet supervision, regardless of whether it is aimed at Party and government work or at an individual leading cadre, regardless of whether it is put gently and mildly or is a hurtful truth, but we must earnestly research and adopt it.
On the third question, I will talk about gaining breakthroughs in core technology as quickly as possible.
In 20 years’ time, our country’s Internet development has seen clear achievements, including achievements in a number of technological areas. At present, among the 10 strongest Internet enterprises worldwide, we have four. At the 2nd World Internet Conference, I went to see the “Light of the Internet” exhibition, where over 250 enterprises from all across the world displayed more than 1000 new technologies and new achievements, of which a fair few were ours as well, this is reason for happiness. At the same time, we must also consider that, in comparison with global advanced levels, and in comparison with the strategic objective of building a strong cyber country, we still face grave disparities in many areas, and considerable differences particularly still exist in areas such as Internet innovation capability, infrastructure construction, information resource sharing, industrial strengthen, etc., and the greatest difference lies in core technology.
Internet core technology is the greatest “vital gate”, and the fact that core technology is controlled by others is our greatest hidden danger. An Internet enterprise, however great its size is, however high its market cap is, if it critically relies on the outside world for core components, the “vital gate” of the supply chain is grasped in the hands of others, this can be compared to building a house on another person’s foundation, however large or beautiful it is, it might not stand the wind or the rain, or might even collapse at the first blow. We must control the initiative of our country’s Internet development, guarantee Internet security and national security, therefore, we must make breakthroughs in this difficult area of core technology, and strive to realize “overtaking on a twisting road” in a number of areas and aspects.
In order to make breakthroughs in core technology, we must have determination, perseverance and focus. Having determination means that we must establish an ambition of fighting indomitably and storming strongholds in defiance of difficulties, unwaveringly implement the strategy of innovation driving development, direct ever more human power, material resources and financial input into core technology research and development, gather crack forces, and make strategic arrangements. Having perseverance means that we must formulate core technology equipment strategy plans for the information area, formulate roadmaps, schedules and task sheets, clarify short-term, mid-term and long-term objectives, abide by the laws of technology, move forward by distinguishing phases, distinguishing categories and distinguishing stages, and insist that there shall be no slackening in the green hills. Having focus means that we must base ourselves on our national circumstances, face the vanguard of global science and technology, face up to the major needs of the country, face up to the main battlefield of the national economy, closely focus on climbing the strategic commanding heights, strengthen the deployment of tasks in major areas and crucial segments, make our orientation clear and make our focus clear. Otherwise, however much money we spend, and however much resources we invest, in the end, we would act at cross-purposes, and it would be difficult to achieve successes.
What are core technologies? As I see it, there are three areas that we can grasp. The first is basic technology, commonly used technology. The second is asymmetric technology, or “trump card” technology. The third is advanced technology, or disruptive technology. In these areas, we are at the same starting line with the outside world, if we are able to take the lead in deployments and concentrate on our attack, we might well be able to realize a transformation from running at their heels to running abreast with or even ahead of them. The broad entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel in our country’s cybersecurity and informatization area must establish these noble aspirations and high aims, they must speak in this tone, and must strive to make new and major breakthroughs in core technologies as quickly as possible. As it is said: those who walk every day, don’t fear ten thousand miles; those who act often, do not fear ten thousand tasks.”
Our country’s information technology industry system is relatively perfect, its basis is relatively good, and in some areas, it is coming close to or has reached global advanced levels, our market space is large, we have the conditions and the capacity to make great strides ahead in core technology, the crux lies in getting our ideas into shape, and moving forward earnestly and diligently.
First, we must correctly handle the relationship between openness and self-reliance. The Internet has turned the world into a global village, promoting international society increasingly means the creation of a community of common destiny in which I find myself among you, and you find yourself among us. Now, there is a sort of viewpoint that claims that the Internet is very complex and very difficult to govern, it would be better to just close it down, or block it off. This sort of argument is incorrect, and is also not a way to resolve problems. China’s great open gate cannot be closed and will not be closed. We must encourage and support our country’s cybersecurity and informatization enterprises to march out, deepen international Internet exchange and collaboration, vigorously participate in the construction of “One Belt One Road”, ensure that “wherever the national interest is, there shall be informatization coverage.” We welcome foreign Internet enterprises, as long as they abide by our country’s laws and regulations.
At present, there are two kinds of viewpoint concerning technological development that merit attention. One kind of viewpoint believes that we must close ourselves off, make a fresh start, thoroughly shake off our reliance on foreign technology, and rely on indigenous innovation to pursue development, otherwise, we would always follow in the footsteps of others, and would never be able to catch up. Another viewpoint believes that we must have open innovation, develop our own technology by standing on the shoulders of giants, as we would not be able to catch up otherwise. Both viewpoints have a certain point, but they are also a little too absolute, they do not deal with the problem in a dialectical manner. On the one hand, core technology is a national treasure, and we must rely on indigenous innovation, self-reliance and self-strengthening concerning the most crucial and the most core technologies. Market exchange does not bring core technology, we can also not buy core technology with money, we must rely on our own research and our own development. On the other hand, when we stress indigenous innovation, it does not mean that we close the doors to do research and development, we must absolutely persist in open innovation, only if we follow spar with aces will we be able to know the difference, we cannot allow self-deluded conceit.
We do not reject any new technology, new technologies are the achievement of human civilizational development, as long as they benefit our country’s social productivity levels, or benefit the improvement of the people’s livelihood, we will not reject them. The problem is that we must make clear which things can be imported but have to be secure and controllable, which things may be imported, digested and absorbed for re-innovation, which things can be developed in collaboration with others, and for which things we must rely on our own strength and indigenous innovation. The root problem of core technology is the problem of basic research, if basic research is not done well, applied technology will become a sourceless river, and a rootless tree.
Second, we must concentrate forces to do great things in scientific research input. In recent years, we have invested a fair bit of money in core technology research and development, but the results have not yet been very clear. As I see it, the main problem is that we have good steel but haven’t used it for a sharp knife-edge. We must focus on core technology in which the country urgently needs breakthroughs, hold our fists tight and unremittingly forge ahead.
Third, we must vigorously promote the transformation of achievements in core technology. For technology to develop, it must be used. In the global information area, the ability to integrate innovation chains, industrial chains and value chains has increasingly become the crux deciding success and defeat. The final results of core technology research and development should not only be technology reports, scientific research articles or experimental prototypes, but should be market products, technological capability and industrial capability. If core technology becomes separated from its industry chains, value chains and ecological systems, if upstream and downstream are not connected, it might become work in vain.
Scientific research and the economy cannot become “two different skins”, we must strive to push forward the transformation and industrialization of core technology achievements. After argumentation within a certain scale, what can be used should be used. It is natural that new technologies and new products that we push out ourselves have a few problems. We may continuously improve it in the process of usage, and incessantly raise quality. If no one uses it, and it is only about writing up final project reports that are then shelved, we will never develop.
Fourth, we must promote strong alliances and attack strategic passes in a coordinated manner. We must assault the fortifications of core technology research and development well, we must not only call forth the assault, we must also sound the call for assembly, which means that we must concentrate the most powerful forces to act together, compose shock brigades and special forces to storm the passes. There is a great disparity between us and international advance levels where core technology is concerned, a very prominent reason is that our backbone enterprises do not have a coordinated impact in the way Microsoft, Intel, Google and Apple have. The US has a so-called “Wen Tailai” alliance, Microsoft’s Windows operating system can only be paired with Intel chips. Concerning core technology research and development, strong alliances provide better effects than fighting alone, we must figure out a few methods in this area, thoroughly cast away departmental interests and sectarian fetters. With an attitude of rather being a chicken head than a phoenix tail, and with an attitude of being happy with a tiny plot of land, it will be difficult to join forces, and therefore difficult to accomplish anything.
Some comrades have made very good suggestions concerning the organization of alliances between industry, education, research and application. For instance, we can organize an “Internet Plus” alliance, a high-end chip alliance, etc., to strengthen communication and coordination concerning strategy, technology, standards, markets, etc., and to coordinate storming the passes of innovation. We may explore appointing leaders on a list of tasks, where we list required key and core technology projects, and regardless of where heroes come from, anyone who has the skill can be appointed to the list. In this area, we must both give rein to the role of State-owned enterprises, and to the role of people-run enterprises, both sides may also join hands. We may also explore ever closer capital coordination methods, the establishment of core technology research and investment companies, to give rein to the superiorities of leading enterprises, and drive the development of small and mid-size enterprises, this would both resolve the problems of upstream enterprises in promoting the application of their technology, and resolve the problems of downstream enterprises that “lack pith and have little spirit”.
As for the fourth question, I will talk a little about correctly handling the relationship between security and development.
Cybersecurity and informatization are mutually complementary. Security is the precondition of development, development is the guarantee of security, security and development must progress in step. We must absolutely understand that throughout all ages, many technologies are “double-edged swords”, on the one hand, they may enrich society and enrich the people, on the other hand, they may also be used by some people to harm the social interest and the interest of the masses. Looking at a global scale, cybersecurity threats and risks are becoming more prominent every day, and permeate into politics, the economy, culture, society, ecology, national defence and other such areas more every day. We especially face relatively large risks and hidden dangers in our national crucial information infrastructure, our cybersecurity defence and control capability is weak, it is difficult to effectively respond to state-level, organized high-strength cyber attacks. This is a difficulty for all countries worldwide, and we are naturally no exception.
In the face of complex and grave cybersecurity circumstances, we must maintain a clear head, all sides must grasp matters and manage affairs together, in order to realistically safeguard cybersecurity.
First, we must establish a correct view of cybersecurity. Ideas decide actions. At present, cybersecurity has a number of main characteristics. First is that cybersecurity is holistic and not separate. In the information age, one slight move in cybersecurity can influence the whole edifice of national security, and it is closely connected with security in many other areas. Second is that cybersecurity is dynamic, not static. Information technology is changing increasingly rapidly, and the decentralized and independent networks of the past are becoming highly connected and highly interdependent, the sources of cybersecurity threats and the methods of attack are changing incessantly, that kind of idea of relying on installing a few pieces of security equipment and some security software to think one is safe forever is no longer of these times, we need to establish a dynamic and comprehensive sense of protection. Third, cybersecurity is open and not closed. Only if we base ourselves on an open environment, and strengthen foreign interaction, collaboration, exchange and game playing, and absorb advanced technology, will it be possible to incessantly raise cybersecurity levels. Fourth, cybersecurity is relative and not absolute. There is no absolute security, we must protect security based on national circumstances, we must avoid pursuing absolute security without taking costs into consideration, we will not only bear a heavy burden in that way, we might even lose sight of important things because we handle too much at the same time. Fifth, cybersecurity is shared, it is not isolated. Cybersecurity is for the sake of the people, cybersecurity relies on the people, maintaining cybersecurity is a shared responsibility of all of society, it requires the joint participation of government, enterprises, social organizations and the broad netizens, to jointly build the cybersecurity defence line. All relevant sides must grasp these characteristics well.
Second, We must accelerate the construction of security protection systems for crucial information infrastructure. Crucial information infrastructure in areas such as finance, energy, electricity, telecommunications, traffic, etc., are nerve centres for the functioning of the economy and society, they are the heaviest of heavies in cybersecurity, and may become the targets of focused attack. The defence line of “material isolation” may be crossed across networks, electricity allocation commands may be maliciously distorted, financial transaction information may be stolen, these are grave risks and hidden dangers. Even if problems have not yet occurred, as soon as they happen, they may led to traffic disruption, financial chaos, electricity paralysis, etc., which would be greatly destructive and harmful. We must deeply research this, and adopt effective measures to realistically protect the security of national crucial information infrastructure well.
Third, an all-weather, omnidirectional sensing cybersecurity posture. Only if one knows oneself and one’s opponent, will one not be beaten in a hundred battles. Not being aware of risks is the biggest risk. Cybersecurity has a very strong concealed nature, one technological loophole or one security risk may be hidden undiscovered for a few years, with the result being that “we do not know who has entered, we do not know whether they are friends or foes, and we do not know what they have done”, they can “lie low” for a very long tome, and suddenly spring into action when something is up.
To safeguard cybersecurity, we must first and foremost know where the risks are, what kind of risks there are, and at which moment risks occur, in other words, “a good listener hears the noiseless, a good watcher sees the shapeless”. A sensing cybersecurity posture is the most fundamental work. We must comprehensively strengthen cybersecurity monitoring, seek out matters to the bottom, clearly recognise risks, find loopholes, report results, and supervise rectification and improvement. We must establish uniform and high-efficiency cybersecurity risk reporting mechanisms, intelligence sharing mechanisms, and deliberative handling mechanisms, we must correctly grasp the rules, trends and tendencies of the occurrence of cybersecurity risks. We must establish information sharing mechanisms concerning cybersecurity between government and enterprises, and use the large amounts of cybersecurity information grasped by enterprises, leading enterprises must take the lead in participating in these mechanisms.
Experts report that in the area of data openness and information sharing, departmental interests, sectoral interests and personal considerations exist. In this area, we must strengthen argumentation, unite that what can be united, give rein to the effect whereby 1+1 is more than two, in order to comprehensively utilize the data resources that everyone grasps, we must strengthen the excavation and analysis of big data, sense cybersecurity trends even better, and do risk prevention well. If we do this work well, it will be of great benefit to the country, to society, to enterprises and to the masses.
Fourth, we must strengthen our defensive capability and deterrence capability concerning cybersecurity. The essence of cybersecurity lies in resistance, the essence of resistance lies in the trial between the offensive and defensive capabilities of both sides. We must implement the cybersecurity responsibility system, formulate cybersecurity standards, and clarify the targets of protection, the level of protection and protection measures. Which areas must be guarded by massive forces, must be subject to strict precautions or defended to the death, which areas are to be protected by local governments, are subject to moderate protection, which areas are defended by market forces, in all cases, there must be a very clear account. Others are using planes and artillery, we are still using broadswords and spears, that will not do, attacking and defensive strengths must match. We must counter technology with technology, manage technology with technology, and ensure that when evil rises a foot, virtue rises ten feet.
At present, the cybersecurity game between large countries is not only a technological game, it is also a game of ideas and a game of discursive power. We put forward the “Four Principles” and “Five Standpoints” for global Internet development an governance, and especially our proposition of respect for cyber sovereignty and the construction of a community of common destiny in cyberspace has gained the praise of the absolute majority of countries worldwide.
As for the fifth question, I will talk a little about strengthening a sense of mission and a sense of responsibility among Internet enterprises, to jointly stimulate the sustained and healthy development of the Internet. Our country’s Internet enterprises range from small to large, from weak to strong, and play an important role in stable growth, stimulating employment, enriching the people’s livelihoods, etc. To let enterprises develop in a sustained and healthy manner, is both the objective for which entrepreneurs struggle, and a need for national development. The fate of enterprises is closely bound up with the development of the country. If they turn their back on State support and turn their back on the support of the masses, if they turn their back on serving the country and serving the people, it will be difficult for enterprises to become strong and large.
This year, during the national “Two Sessions” period, I stressed, when I participated in the 4th Meeting of the 12th CPPCC, at the joint session of the civil construction and industry and commerce committee, that that implementing a basic economic system with public ownership at the core and in which many different kinds of ownership develop together, is a fundamental state policy established by the Chinese Communist Party, it is an important component part of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is a necessary demand to complete the Socialist market economy system; our Party’s viewpoints concerning persisting in this basic economic system is clear and consistent, moreover, it is incessantly deepening, we have never wavered, this will not change, and this cannot change. We have not only said things, we have also rapidly made our speeches public, in order to let the broad entrepreneurs eat this “tranquilizer”.
Our country is so large, and its population so numerous, we must continue to enhance economic and social development, which requires that all sides make concerted efforts, the publicly owned economy and the non-publicly owned economy should complement each other and make each other shine more brilliantly, they should not mutually reject each other or block each other. The non-publicly owned economy has grown, has become better, and has gone out to the world, it has made great contributions to the country and the people, and is a credit to the country. The Party and the government naturally must support it, this is beyond all doubt.
In our country, more than 700 million people use the Internet, this must naturally be managed, and moreover, this management is very complex and onerous. Enterprises must bear their corporate responsibility, the Party and government must bear the responsibility of the Party and government, neither side can abandon its own responsibility. In cybersecurity and informatization management, websites have the main responsibility, and government administrative management departments must strengthen supervision. Controlling departments and enterprises must establish close coordination and cooperation relationships, and avoid the phenomenon of “chaos once rules are loosened, and death once management stepped in” that occurred regularly in the past, they must match a new path of jointly grasping matters and managing affairs together, of benign interaction.
First, we must persist in the combination of encouragement, support, standardization and development. Enterprises directly face markets, they are at the first line of innovation, they are at the first line of grasping the masses’ demands, their market perception is very acute, they are sensitive to innovation needs, and strong with regard to innovation wishes. We should encourage and support enterprises to become centres of research and development, innovative centres and industrial centres, encourage and support enterprises to deploy advanced technology, promote indigenous innovation in core technology, create and grasp more opportunities, participate in international competition, and broaden their development space abroad.
At present, our country’s Internet market also harbours a number of situations including malicious competition, abuse of dominant market positions, etc., and there are quite a few opinions on this among small and mid-size enterprises. In this area, we must standardize market order, and encourage benign competition. This benefits the stimulation of the innovative vitality f enterprises, the improvement of their competitive ability and the broadening of their market space, and it also benefits the balance between all sides’ interests, safeguarding the national interest, and serving the common people ever better. We must strengthen intellectual property rights protection, raise the price of infringement and the cost of breaking the law, and frighten off unlawful and infringing acts. The 4th Plenum of the 18th Party Committee put forward that we must complete an intellectual property rights protection system with fairness as a core principle, strengthen protection of property rights of economic organizations of all kinds of ownership systems as well as natural persons, and clean up legal and regulatory provisions that are unfair. These requirements must be implemented as quickly as possible.
Second, persist in combining policy guidance and management according to the law. Government must create good conditions for the development of enterprises, accelerate the reform of examination and approval structures, funding structures and patent structures, reduce duplicate inspections and accreditations, implement a high-quality, high-price government procurement system, reduce burdens on enterprises, and eliminate systemic and mechanistic obstacles. After the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, the Party Centre established the Leading Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, with me at the head, and it has already pushed out many reform plans that are connected to these points. Reform must continue to move forward, by which I mean to say that we must dare to gnaw at hard bones, and dare to ford dangerous rapids, and charge dangerous passes.
At the same time, we must accelerate the process of cyber legislation, perfect supervision and management measures according to the law, and dissolve cyber risks. The Ezubao and Zhongjinxi cases that occurred recently, hit the mark of illegal fundraising under the banner of “online finance”, have brought great material losses to the masses involved, this had a very grave social impact. Now, online fraud cases are growing in number, criminal methods are constantly changing, and their technology content is growing ever higher. This also reminds us that, when new technologies and new businesses develop, we must guard against the proliferation of risks.
We must strengthen the management of data according to the law. Some kinds of data involving the national interest and national security, is controlled in the hands of Internet enterprises, and enterprises must guarantee the security of these data. Enterprises must pay high regard to data security. If problems concerning data protection and security occur in enterprises, this will also bring a deleterious influence for their own reputation.
Third, persist in the combination of economic effect and social effect. An enterprise has economic and legal responsibilities on the one hand, and has social responsibilities and moral responsibilities on the other. The larger an enterprise grows, the greater its social responsibility and moral responsibility becomes, and the higher the masses’ demands are towards these enterprises. Our country’s Internet sector has, in the process of development, borne a great deal of social responsibility, this point must be fully affirmed, and I hope they will carry those forward”.
“Actions start with oneself, a reputation starts with others.” I have said that only wealth that is rich in kindness is truly just wealth, only enterprises that vigorously bear their social responsibilities are the most competitive enterprises, with the greatest vitality. Those running websites cannot blindly pursue click rates, those opening online stores must guard against fakes and poor quality, those running social interaction platforms cannot become dissemination tools for rumours, those running search engines cannot only take how much money someone gave as a standard for ranking. I hope that the broad Internet enterprises persist in the unity of economic effect and social effect, and at the same time as developing themselves, never forget their origins, repay favours to society, and enrich the people.
As for the sixth question, I will talk a little about gathering heroic talents from under heaven and employing them, so as to provide powerful talent support for the development of the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking.
Talent is the first resource. Since antiquity, talent has been the root of a country’s wealth, and a matter of fundamental importance in rejuvenating a nation. I have said that if we want to develop our cause well, we must gather heroic talents from under heaven and employ them. If we want to carry out our undertaking, we must have this vision, this audacity, and this spirit.
“Those who win over the people thrive, those who lose the people collapse.” Competition in cyberspace, in the final analysis, is a competition in talent. In building a strong cyber country, will be difficult to be successful without a line of excellent talent teams, without the creativity of talent bursting forth, or its vitality flowing. Only if we read “the Book of Talent” well, will be able to get twice the result with half the effort. Where our country is concerned, in the primary stage of reform and opening up, capital was relatively rare, and therefore we rolled out many policies to encourage the import of capital, for instance “2 years exemption and three years half payment”. Now, capital is no longer so rare, but talents – and especially high-end talents remain rare. Our brains must round a corner, we must both pay high regard to capital, and to talent, we must further strengthen our attraction of talents, and the pace of talent structure and mechanism reform must further accelerate. The cybersecurity and informatization area can take precedence in advance trials, in order to grasp investigation and research, and formulate rules to attract talent, foster talent and retain talent.
The Internet is a technology-intensive industry, and is one of the areas in which technological renewal happens most quickly. The development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking must fully muster the vigour, initiative and creativity of entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, as well as scientific and technological personnel. Some years ago, when I worked in Zhengding district, in order to borrow wisdom from first-rate experts and scholars from around the nation, we especially invited Hua Luogeng and other such experts and scholars to act as consultant to our country, and some came to Zhengding in person to guide work. Entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, and scientific and technological personnel must be taken on by the state, and have social responsibility, they should contribute their wisdom and strength to stimulate the country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking. All levels’ Party Committees and governments must, from the bottom of their hearts, respect knowledge and respect talents, create good conditions to give rein to their intelligence and wisdom, create a relaxed atmosphere, and provide a broad platform.
The Internet is mainly an undertaking for the young, and we must not stick to one pattern in terms of talent. We must liberate thoughts, insightfully recognize talent, love talent and cherish talent. To foster cybersecurity and informatization talents, we must exert great efforts, spend great amounts of money, invite excellent teachers, create excellent textbooks, recruit excellent students, and build first-rate cyberspace security institutes. Talent in the Internet area often are eccentric talents and rare talents, they often do not walk a common path, and many of then think in strange and subtle ways. We must have special policies for special talents, we must not demand overall perfection, we must not assign jobs by seniority and formal qualifications, and we must not always use one yardstick to measure.
We must adopt special policies, and build human resource structures and remuneration structures suited to the characteristics of cybersecurity and informatization, we must concentrate excellent talents in technological departments, research departments and management departments. We must establish talent evaluation mechanisms suited to the characteristics of cybersecurity and informatization, make real capabilities into evaluation standards, not only look at formal schooling, not only look at treatises, and not only look at qualification records, we must give prominence to specialization, innovativity and practicality. We must establish flexible talent incentive mechanisms, and ensure that talents making contributions have a sense of achievement and a sense of gain. We must explore mechanisms for the ownership of scientific research achievements and intellectual property rights, and income allocation, in the cybersecurity and informatization sphere, and formulate specialized policies for talent input, technological input as well as tax collection. We must break through institutional boundaries in terms of talent flows, and let talent be able to flow between government, enterprise and think tanks in a smooth and orderly manner. We may also learn from the merits of the foreign kind of “revolving door” system.
Our country is one of the countries with the greatest scientific and technological talent resources, but it is also a country where the brain drain is relatively grave, and there is no lack of top talents among them. We must have a global vision in terms of talent appointment and promotion, and exert great efforts to bring in high-end talent. Following the incessant strengthening of our country’s comprehensive national strength, there are talents from many countries that hope to come to our country and develop. We must seize this opportunity, reform all structures concerning talent import, and build talent structures and systems that are globally competitive. Regardless of which country or which region they come from, as long a someone is an excellent talent, they may be useful to us. In this work, there are some enterprises and scientific research institutes that have already done so, I have gone to a number of enterprises and scientific research institutes, and I have engaged in discussions with these talents brought in from abroad. We must expand efforts in this area, and incessantly raise our capability to deploy talent resources worldwide.
Comrades! This year is the year in which the “13th Five-Year Plan” starts, cybersecurity and informatization work is the most important element in the “13th Five-Year Plan” period. I hope that the comrades vigorously thrown themselves into the construction of a strong cyber country, even better give rein to the roles of entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, and technological personnel in the cybersecurity and informatization area, and support them in making ever greater contributions to realize the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society and to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!