Speech at the Work Conference for Cybersecurity and Informatization

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Xi Jinping

Today, we have convened a Work Conference for Cybersecurity and Informatization. I have always wanted to have this Conference. Since the 18th Party Conference, our country’s Internet undertaking has developed rapidly, cybersecurity and informatization work is moving forward steadily, we are gaining clear progress and achievements, and at the same time, a fair few shortcomings and problems exist. We have convened this Conference because we want to openly hear everyone’s opinions and suggestions, jointly explore some ways and means, in order to ensure that we can do our work ever better.

Just now, the comrades spoke very well, they analysed the new circumstances and new trends in the development of the Internet at present, they presented the new technologies and new tendencies in the development of informatization, and put forward very good opinions and suggestions, I feel greatly enlightened having listened to them. Their remarks reflect a pragmatic attitude, an innovative spirit and a strong sense of responsibility, they also reflect relatively high theoretical and practical levels in the area of the Internet, and are of great help in our improving our work. Relevant departments must earnestly research everyone’s opinions and suggestions, and absorb what they can absorb as much as possible. Next, I would like to discuss a few opinions, and exchange them with everyone.

As for the first points, I will discuss promoting the development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking, and let the Internet enrich the people even better.

Having listened to everyone’s remarks, I have a general feeling, which is that where the Internet is concerned, although our country is a late arrival, and has only linked up with the international Internet for 20 years, we are nevertheless correctly handling the relationships between security and development, openness and self-reliance, management and service, and we have obtained achievements in Internet development that have attracted everyone’s gaze. Now, the Internet is increasingly becoming a new space for people to study, work and live, and is increasingly becoming a new platform to obtain public services. Our country has 700 million netizens, this is an amazing number, and is an amazing achievement.

Looking from the history of social development, humankind has experienced the agricultural revolution and the industrial revolution, and is currently experiencing the information revolution. The agricultural revolution strengthened humanity’s ability to subsist, ensured that humanity could march from hunting and gathering to growing and breeding, and could march from an uncivilized age to a civilized society. The industrial revolution expanded humanity’s physical strength, replaced human strength with machinery, and large-scale factory construction replaced handwork production in individual workshops. Now, the information revolution is strengthening humanity’s thinking strength, it is bringing another qualitative leap in productivity, and engenders a profound influence on international politics, economics, culture, society, ecology and military affairs.

In the current and subsequent period, the objective of our country’s development is realizing the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective. I have said that building a wealthy, strong, democratic, civilized and harmonious Socialist modern country, and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese dream, are the greatest dreams of the Chinese people since the Opium War, and are the highest and most fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. Today, our 1.3 billion people are all struggling, in the final analysis, to realize this magnificent objective.

Our country once was an economic power in the world, but afterwards, when the industrial revolution occurred in Europe and profound changes happened worldwide, it lost a historical opportunity to progress together with the world, and progressively declined into a passive and defeated plight. Especially after the Opium War, the Chinese nation sank into a miserable situation of poverty and weakness, and let itself be trampled on. When we think about this part of history, we feel profound pain in our hearts. But after the efforts of successive generations, we have never been so close to realizing the objective of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as today, and we have never had more confidence and more ability to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as today. This is an important historical opportunity for the Chinese nation, we must grasp it tightly, and must never lose such a historical opportunity again. This is the historical responsibility of this generation of ours, and is our responsibility towards the Chinese nation, it is our responsibility towards our ancestors, and is our responsibility towards posterity.

The 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress put forward the new development ideas of innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing, these have been put forward on the basis of a profound summary of the experiences and lessons of development at home and abroad, and a profound analysis of the overall trends of domestic and foreign development, they are the concentrated reflection of our Party’s new understanding of our country’s economic and social development laws. Promoting our country’s economic and social development according to new development ideas is a general requirement and overall trend for our country’s development in the present and future period. The ancients said: “He inaugurates works in accordance with the times, accomplishes merits by means of resources, and employs the utilities of the myriad things to get profits out of them”. The development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking must adapt to this overall trend. Generally speaking, the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking represents new productive forces and a new development direction, we should also be able to make a step forward in practicing new development ideas.

Our country’s economic development has entered a new normal, the new normal requires new drivers, and the Internet can have great potential in this area. We are implementing the “Internet Plus” action plan, which has spurred all of society to arouse a new wave of innovation and entrepreneurialism, and the information economy’s proportion of our country’s gross domestic product is rising incessantly. In the present world, informatization is developing rapidly, those who do not move forward will fall behind, and those who move too slowly also fall behind. We must strengthen the construction of our information infrastructure, strengthen the deep integration of information resources, and open up information “arteries” for economic and social development. The 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress and the “13th Five-Year Plan” outline have provided deployments for the implementation of the strong cyber country strategy, the “Internet Plus” action plan, the big data strategy, etc., we must realistically implement these well, strive to promote the converged development of the Internet and the real economy, drive technology flows, talent flows and material flows through information flows, stimulate the optimization of resource allocation, stimulate the improvement of the productivity of all factors, and play a vigorous role in promoting innovative development, the transformation of economic development methods and the adjustment of economic structures.

For the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking to develop, we must implement the development idea of people being central. This is an important viewpoint put forward at the 5th Plenum of the 18th Party Congress. We must adapt to the people’s expectations and requirements, accelerate the universalization of informatized services, reduce application costs, provide information services that the common people can use, can afford to use and can use well, and let hundreds of millions of people have an ever greater sense of gain in sharing the development fruits of the Internet. In comparison with cities, the construction of rural Internet infrastructure is our shortcoming. We must expand investment, accelerate the pace of rural Internet construction, and broaden the effective coverage of glass fibre networks and broadband networks in rural regions. We may accomplish this great work of the deep convergence of informatization and industrialization, develop smart manufacturing, and promote that ever more people innovate and establish start-ups; we may aim the direction of the main attack in agricultural modernization, raise the smartness levels of agricultural production levels, the networking levels of trading, and assist the broad peasants to expand their incomes; we may give rein to the superiority of the Internet, implement “Internet Plus Education”, “Internet Plus Healthcare”, Internet Plus Culture”, etc., to stimulate the equalization of basic public services, we may give rein to the role of the Internet in assisting storming the fortifications of poverty relief, move forward with precise poverty aid, precise poverty relief, let ever more masses in difficulties start to use the Internet, let agricultural products leave villages through the Internet, and let children in remote mountain valleys also enjoy an excellent education; we may accelerate moving forward with e-government, encourage all levels’ government departments to break through information barriers and enhance their service efficiency, so that the masses need to do less legwork and information does more legwork, in order to resolve the problems that arranging matters is difficult, slow and complex, etc. There are many things that we can do in these areas, some Internet enterprises have already engaged in trials, and have gained relatively good economic effects and social effects.

Some experts have put forward that problems exist in our national governance, including insufficient information sharing, resource planning and work coordination, which has constrained the efficiency of national governance and public service levels. These problems must be deeply researched. We put forward that we must move forward the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, information is an important basis for national governance and we must give rein to its important role in this process. We must use informatization to move forward the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, comprehensively plan the development of e-government, build uniform online service platforms, move forward the construction of new types of smart cities forward in a hierarchical and categorized manner, break through information barriers, build nationwide information resource sharing systems, and even better use informatized means to sense social circumstances, unblock communication channels and assist scientific policymaking.

On the second question, I will discuss the construction of a good online ecology, and giving rein to the role of the network in guiding public opinion and reflecting the popular will.

The Internet is a large social information platform, hundreds of millions of netizens use it to obtain information and exchange information, this may engender a great influence on the channels through which they seek knowledge, their way of thinking and their value view, and it may especially have a great influence on their views about the country, society, work and life.

To realize the “Two Centenaries” struggle objective, all of society must act with one heart in all areas, the people of all ethnicities in the entire country must direct their hearts to the same place, and direct their energies to the same place. If a society has no common ideals and no common objectives, if it has no common value view, and is tumultuous every day, nothing will ever be accomplished. Our country has 1.3 billion people, if it would turn into such a situation, it would not agree with the people’s interests, and would not agree with the country’s interests.

The work of concentrating a consensus is not easy, everyone must strive together. In order to realize our goals, online and offline must become concentric circles. What are concentric circles? It means to mobilize the people of all ethnicities in the entire country under the leadership of the Party, and mobilize the vigour on all sides, to jointly struggle to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

The ancients said: “Those who know the roof leaks are under it, those who know a government’s failures are in the grasslands. [Translator’s note: the term “grasslands” refers to the common citizenry] Many netizens see themselves as the “grass roots”, and so the network is a “grassland” of the present. Netizens come from among the common people, the common people have gone online, and so popular opinion has gone online. Wherever the masses are, there our leading cadres must go, if they don’t, how would they link up with the masses? All levels’ Party and government bodies and leading cadres must learn to march the mass line through the network, regularly go online to watch, try the water, have a chat, say a little something, understand what the masses think and want, collect good ideas and good suggestions, vigorously response to the concerns of netizens, and dispel their doubts. To be good at using the network to understand the popular will and do one’s work is a basic skill for leading cadres to do their work well under new circumstances. All levels’ cadres and especially leading cadres must incessantly improve this skill.

The absolute majority of netizens are common masses, they come from everywhere, they all have different experiences, their viewpoints and ideas are certainly varied and multifarious, we cannot demand that they all look at problems in precisely the same way, or speak so correctly. We must be a bit more tolerant and patient, we must timely accept constructive opinions, timely help in case of difficulties, timely explain matters to those who do not understand the situation, timely clear up muddled understandings, timely dissolve grievances and complaints, timely provide guidance and redress where viewpoints are mistaken, we must let the Internet become a new platform for us to communicate with the masses, become a new channel to understand the masses, stay close to the masses and eliminate worry and difficulty for the masses, and become a new channel to carry forward the people’s democracy and accept the people’s supervision.

Cyberspace is a common spiritual garden for hundreds of millions of people. Having a clear sky and crisp air, having a good ecology in cyberspace conforms to the people’s interests. A pestilent atmosphere and a deteriorating ecology in cyberspace do not conform to the people’s interest. No one would be willing to live in a space that is full of falsehoods, fraud, attacks, jeering, terror, sex and violence. The Internet is not a land outside the law. The use of the internet to play up subversion of the national regime, to stir up religious extremism, to propagate ethnic separatist thought, to instigate violent and terrorist activities, these acts must be firmly curbed and attacked, we can absolutely not let them have their way. The use of networks to engage in fraudulent activities, to disseminate sexual material, to engage in personal attacks, to sell illegal goods, etc., these words and deeds must also be firmly brought under control, we can also absolutely not let them have their way. There isn’t any country that would permit such acts to spread unchecked. We must with, an attitude of responsibility towards society and responsibility towards the people, lawfully strengthen governance in cyberspace, strengthen the construction of online content, strengthen online positive propaganda, foster a positive, healthy, upward and benevolent online culture, use the Socialist core value view and the excellent achievements of human civilization to nourish people’s hearts and nourish society, ensure that positive energy is plentiful, the main melody soars, and a cyberspace with a crisp wind and a correct air is created for the broad netizens and especially the young.

Creating a good online public opinion environment dos not only mean that there can be one voice or one tune, but it means that we cannot fiddle with right and wrong, confound black and white, spread rumours to create trouble, break the law and commit crime, we cannot exceed the boundaries of the Constitution and the laws. I have often stressed that we must lock power into a cage of rules, and one important method is giving rein to the role of public opinion supervision including Internet supervision. On this matter, all levels’ Party and government bodies and leading cadres must pay special attention, and must do it well with priority. We should not only welcome Internet supervision, regardless of whether it is aimed at Party and government work or at an individual leading cadre, regardless of whether it is put gently and mildly or is a hurtful truth, but we must earnestly research and adopt it.

On the third question, I will talk about gaining breakthroughs in core technology as quickly as possible.

In 20 years’ time, our country’s Internet development has seen clear achievements, including achievements in a number of technological areas. At present, among the 10 strongest Internet enterprises worldwide, we have four. At the 2nd World Internet Conference, I went to see the “Light of the Internet” exhibition, where over 250 enterprises from all across the world displayed more than 1000 new technologies and new achievements, of which a fair few were ours as well, this is reason for happiness. At the same time, we must also consider that, in comparison with global advanced levels, and in comparison with the strategic objective of building a strong cyber country, we still face grave disparities in many areas, and considerable differences particularly still exist in areas such as Internet innovation capability, infrastructure construction, information resource sharing, industrial strengthen, etc., and the greatest difference lies in core technology.

Internet core technology is the greatest “vital gate”, and the fact that core technology is controlled by others is our greatest hidden danger. An Internet enterprise, however great its size is, however high its market cap is, if it critically relies on the outside world for core components, the “vital gate” of the supply chain is grasped in the hands of others, this can be compared to building a house on another person’s foundation, however large or beautiful it is, it might not stand the wind or the rain, or might even collapse at the first blow. We must control the initiative of our country’s Internet development, guarantee Internet security and national security, therefore, we must make breakthroughs in this difficult area of core technology, and strive to realize “overtaking on a twisting road” in a number of areas and aspects.

In order to make breakthroughs in core technology, we must have determination, perseverance and focus. Having determination means that we must establish an ambition of fighting indomitably and storming strongholds in defiance of difficulties, unwaveringly implement the strategy of innovation driving development, direct ever more human power, material resources and financial input into core technology research and development, gather crack forces, and make strategic arrangements. Having perseverance means that we must formulate core technology equipment strategy plans for the information area, formulate roadmaps, schedules and task sheets, clarify short-term, mid-term and long-term objectives, abide by the laws of technology, move forward by distinguishing phases, distinguishing categories and distinguishing stages, and insist that there shall be no slackening in the green hills. Having focus means that we must base ourselves on our national circumstances, face the vanguard of global science and technology, face up to the major needs of the country, face up to the main battlefield of the national economy, closely focus on climbing the strategic commanding heights, strengthen the deployment of tasks in major areas and crucial segments, make our orientation clear and make our focus clear. Otherwise, however much money we spend, and however much resources we invest, in the end, we would act at cross-purposes, and it would be difficult to achieve successes.

What are core technologies? As I see it, there are three areas that we can grasp. The first is basic technology, commonly used technology. The second is asymmetric technology, or “trump card” technology. The third is advanced technology, or disruptive technology. In these areas, we are at the same starting line with the outside world, if we are able to take the lead in deployments and concentrate on our attack, we might well be able to realize a transformation from running at their heels to running abreast with or even ahead of them. The broad entrepreneurs, experts, scholars and scientific and technological personnel in our country’s cybersecurity and informatization area must establish these noble aspirations and high aims, they must speak in this tone, and must strive to make new and major breakthroughs in core technologies as quickly as possible. As it is said: those who walk every day, don’t fear ten thousand miles; those who act often, do not fear ten thousand tasks.”

Our country’s information technology industry system is relatively perfect, its basis is relatively good, and in some areas, it is coming close to or has reached global advanced levels, our market space is large, we have the conditions and the capacity to make great strides ahead in core technology, the crux lies in getting our ideas into shape, and moving forward earnestly and diligently.

First, we must correctly handle the relationship between openness and self-reliance. The Internet has turned the world into a global village, promoting international society increasingly means the creation of a community of common destiny in which I find myself among you, and you find yourself among us. Now, there is a sort of viewpoint that claims that the Internet is very complex and very difficult to govern, it would be better to just close it down, or block it off. This sort of argument is incorrect, and is also not a way to resolve problems. China’s great open gate cannot be closed and will not be closed. We must encourage and support our country’s cybersecurity and informatization enterprises to march out, deepen international Internet exchange and collaboration, vigorously participate in the construction of “One Belt One Road”, ensure that “wherever the national interest is, there shall be informatization coverage.” We welcome foreign Internet enterprises, as long as they abide by our country’s laws and regulations.

At present, there are two kinds of viewpoint concerning technological development that merit attention. One kind of viewpoint believes that we must close ourselves off, make a fresh start, thoroughly shake off our reliance on foreign technology, and rely on indigenous innovation to pursue development, otherwise, we would always follow in the footsteps of others, and would never be able to catch up. Another viewpoint believes that we must have open innovation, develop our own technology by standing on the shoulders of giants, as we would not be able to catch up otherwise. Both viewpoints have a certain point, but they are also a little too absolute, they do not deal with the problem in a dialectical manner. On the one hand, core technology is a national treasure, and we must rely on indigenous innovation, self-reliance and self-strengthening concerning the most crucial and the most core technologies. Market exchange does not bring core technology, we can also not buy core technology with money, we must rely on our own research and our own development. On the other hand, when we stress indigenous innovation, it does not mean that we close the doors to do research and development, we must absolutely persist in open innovation, only if we follow spar with aces will we be able to know the difference, we cannot allow self-deluded conceit.

We do not reject any new technology, new technologies are the achievement of human civilizational development, as long as they benefit our country’s social productivity levels, or benefit the improvement of the people’s livelihood, we will not reject them. The problem is that we must make clear which things can be imported but have to be secure and controllable, which things may be imported, digested and absorbed for re-innovation, which things can be developed in collaboration with others, and for which things we must rely on our own strength and indigenous innovation. The root problem of core technology is the problem of basic research, if basic research is not done well, applied technology will become a sourceless river, and a rootless tree.

Second, we must concentrate forces to do great things in scientific research input. In recent years, we have invested a fair bit of money in core technology research and development, but the results have not yet been very clear. As I see it, the main problem is that we have good steel but haven’t used it for a sharp knife-edge. We must focus on core technology in which the country urgently needs breakthroughs, hold our fists tight and unremittingly forge ahead.

Third, we must vigorously promote the transformation of achievements in core technology. For technology to develop, it must be used. In the global information area, the ability to integrate innovation chains, industrial chains and value chains has increasingly become the crux deciding success and defeat. The final results of core technology research and development should not only be technology reports, scientific research articles or experimental prototypes, but should be market products, technological capability and industrial capability. If core technology becomes separated from its industry chains, value chains and ecological systems, if upstream and downstream are not connected, it might become work in vain.

Scientific research and the economy cannot become “two different skins”, we must strive to push forward the transformation and industrialization of core technology achievements. After argumentation within a certain scale, what can be used should be used. It is natural that new technologies and new products that we push out ourselves have a few problems. We may continuously improve it in the process of usage, and incessantly raise quality. If no one uses it, and it is only about writing up final project reports that are then shelved, we will never develop.

Fourth, we must promote strong alliances and attack strategic passes in a coordinated manner. We must assault the fortifications of core technology research and development well, we must not only call forth the assault, we must also sound the call for assembly, which means that we must concentrate the most powerful forces to act together, compose shock brigades and special forces to storm the passes. There is a great disparity between us and international advance levels where core technology is concerned, a very prominent reason is that our backbone enterprises do not have a coordinated impact in the way Microsoft, Intel, Google and Apple have. The US has a so-called “Wen Tailai” alliance, Microsoft’s Windows operating system can only be paired with Intel chips. Concerning core technology research and development, strong alliances provide better effects than fighting alone, we must figure out a few methods in this area, thoroughly cast away departmental interests and sectarian fetters. With an attitude of rather being a chicken head than a phoenix tail, and with an attitude of being happy with a tiny plot of land, it will be difficult to join forces, and therefore difficult to accomplish anything.

Some comrades have made very good suggestions concerning the organization of alliances between industry, education, research and application. For instance, we can organize an “Internet Plus” alliance, a high-end chip alliance, etc., to strengthen communication and coordination concerning strategy, technology, standards, markets, etc., and to coordinate storming the passes of innovation. We may explore appointing leaders on a list of tasks, where we list required key and core technology projects, and regardless of where heroes come from, anyone who has the skill can be appointed to the list. In this area, we must both give rein to the role of State-owned enterprises, and to the role of people-run enterprises, both sides may also join hands. We may also explore ever closer capital coordination methods, the establishment of core technology research and investment companies, to give rein to the superiorities of leading enterprises, and drive the development of small and mid-size enterprises, this would both resolve the problems of upstream enterprises in promoting the application of their technology, and resolve the problems of downstream enterprises that “lack pith and have little spirit”.

As for the fourth question, I will talk a little about correctly handling the relationship between security and development.

Cybersecurity and informatization are mutually complementary. Security is the precondition of development, development is the guarantee of security, security and development must progress in step. We must absolutely understand that throughout all ages, many technologies are “double-edged swords”, on the one hand, they may enrich society and enrich the people, on the other hand, they may also be used by some people to harm the social interest and the interest of the masses. Looking at a global scale, cybersecurity threats and risks are becoming more prominent every day, and permeate into politics, the economy, culture, society, ecology, national defence and other such areas more every day. We especially face relatively large risks and hidden dangers in our national crucial information infrastructure, our cybersecurity defence and control capability is weak, it is difficult to effectively respond to state-level, organized high-strength cyber attacks. This is a difficulty for all countries worldwide, and we are naturally no exception.

In the face of complex and grave cybersecurity circumstances, we must maintain a clear head, all sides must grasp matters and manage affairs together, in order to realistically safeguard cybersecurity.

First, we must establish a correct view of cybersecurity. Ideas decide actions. At present, cybersecurity has a number of main characteristics. First is that cybersecurity is holistic and not separate. In the information age, one slight move in cybersecurity can influence the whole edifice of national security, and it is closely connected with security in many other areas. Second is that cybersecurity is dynamic, not static. Information technology is changing increasingly rapidly, and the decentralized and independent networks of the past are becoming highly connected and highly interdependent, the sources of cybersecurity threats and the methods of attack are changing incessantly, that kind of idea of relying on installing a few pieces of security equipment and some security software to think one is safe forever is no longer of these times, we need to establish a dynamic and comprehensive sense of protection. Third, cybersecurity is open and not closed. Only if we base ourselves on an open environment, and strengthen foreign interaction, collaboration, exchange and game playing, and absorb advanced technology, will it be possible to incessantly raise cybersecurity levels. Fourth, cybersecurity is relative and not absolute. There is no absolute security, we must protect security based on national circumstances, we must avoid pursuing absolute security without taking costs into consideration, we will not only bear a heavy burden in that way, we might even lose sight of important things because we handle too much at the same time. Fifth, cybersecurity is shared, it is not isolated. Cybersecurity is for the sake of the people, cybersecurity relies on the people, maintaining cybersecurity is a shared responsibility of all of society, it requires the joint participation of government, enterprises, social organizations and the broad netizens, to jointly build the cybersecurity defence line. All relevant sides must grasp these characteristics well.

Second, We must accelerate the construction of security protection systems for crucial information infrastructure. Crucial information infrastructure in areas such as finance, energy, electricity, telecommunications, traffic, etc., are nerve centres for the functioning of the economy and society, they are the heaviest of heavies in cybersecurity, and may become the targets of focused attack. The defence line of “material isolation” may be crossed across networks, electricity allocation commands may be maliciously distorted, financial transaction information may be stolen, these are grave risks and hidden dangers. Even if problems have not yet occurred, as soon as they happen, they may led to traffic disruption, financial chaos, electricity paralysis, etc., which would be greatly destructive and harmful. We must deeply research this, and adopt effective measures to realistically protect the security of national crucial information infrastructure well.

Third, an all-weather, omnidirectional sensing cybersecurity posture. Only if one knows oneself and one’s opponent, will one not be beaten in a hundred battles. Not being aware of risks is the biggest risk. Cybersecurity has a very strong concealed nature, one technological loophole or one security risk may be hidden undiscovered for a few years, with the result being that “we do not know who has entered, we do not know whether they are friends or foes, and we do not know what they have done”, they can “lie low” for a very long tome, and suddenly spring into action when something is up.

To safeguard cybersecurity, we must first and foremost know where the risks are, what kind of risks there are, and at which moment risks occur, in other words, “a good listener hears the noiseless, a good watcher sees the shapeless”. A sensing cybersecurity posture is the most fundamental work. We must comprehensively strengthen cybersecurity monitoring, seek out matters to the bottom, clearly recognise risks, find loopholes, report results, and supervise rectification and improvement. We must establish uniform and high-efficiency cybersecurity risk reporting mechanisms, intelligence sharing mechanisms, and deliberative handling mechanisms, we must correctly grasp the rules, trends and tendencies of the occurrence of cybersecurity risks. We must establish information sharing mechanisms concerning cybersecurity between government and enterprises, and use the large amounts of cybersecurity information grasped by enterprises, leading enterprises must take the lead in participating in these mechanisms.

Experts report that in the area of data openness and information sharing, departmental interests, sectoral interests and personal considerations exist. In this area, we must strengthen argumentation, unite that what can be united, give rein to the effect whereby 1+1 is more than two, in order to comprehensively utilize the data resources that everyone grasps, we must strengthen the excavation and analysis of big data, sense cybersecurity trends even better, and do risk prevention well. If we do this work well, it will be of great benefit to the country, to society, to enterprises and to the masses.

Fourth, we must strengthen our defensive capability and deterrence capability concerning cybersecurity. The essence of cybersecurity lies in resistance, the essence of resistance lies in the trial between the offensive and defensive capabilities of both sides. We must implement the cybersecurity responsibility system, formulate cybersecurity standards, and clarify the targets of protection, the level of protection and protection measures. Which areas must be guarded by massive forces, must be subject to strict precautions or defended to the death, which areas are to be protected by local governments, are subject to moderate protection, which areas are defended by market forces, in all cases, there must be a very clear account. Others are using planes and artillery, we are still using broadswords and spears, that will not do, attacking and defensive strengths must match. We must counter technology with technology, manage technology with technology, and ensure that when evil rises a foot, virtue rises ten feet.

At present, the cybersecurity game between large countries is not only a technological game, it is also a game of ideas and a game of discursive power. We put forward the “Four Principles” and “Five Standpoints” for global Internet development an governance, and especially our proposition of respect for cyber sovereignty and the construction of a community of common destiny in cyberspace has gained the praise of the absolute majority of countries worldwide.

As for the fifth question, I will talk a little about strengthening a sense of mission and a sense of responsibility among Internet enterprises, to jointly stimulate the sustained and healthy development of the Internet. Our country’s Internet enterprises range from small to large, from weak to strong, and play an important role in stable growth, stimulating employment, enriching the people’s livelihoods, etc. To let enterprises develop in a sustained and healthy manner, is both the objective for which entrepreneurs struggle, and a need for national development. The fate of enterprises is closely bound up with the development of the country. If they turn their back on State support and turn their back on the support of the masses, if they turn their back on serving the country and serving the people, it will be difficult for enterprises to become strong and large.

This year, during the national “Two Sessions” period, I stressed, when I participated in the 4th Meeting of the 12th CPPCC, at the joint session of the civil construction and industry and commerce committee, that that implementing a basic economic system with public ownership at the core and in which many different kinds of ownership develop together, is a fundamental state policy established by the Chinese Communist Party, it is an important component part of the system of Socialism with Chinese characteristics, and is a necessary demand to complete the Socialist market economy system; our Party’s viewpoints concerning persisting in this basic economic system is clear and consistent, moreover, it is incessantly deepening, we have never wavered, this will not change, and this cannot change. We have not only said things, we have also rapidly made our speeches public, in order to let the broad entrepreneurs eat this “tranquilizer”.

Our country is so large, and its population so numerous, we must continue to enhance economic and social development, which requires that all sides make concerted efforts, the publicly owned economy and the non-publicly owned economy should complement each other and make each other shine more brilliantly, they should not mutually reject each other or block each other. The non-publicly owned economy has grown, has become better, and has gone out to the world, it has made great contributions to the country and the people, and is a credit to the country. The Party and the government naturally must support it, this is beyond all doubt.

In our country, more than 700 million people use the Internet, this must naturally be managed, and moreover, this management is very complex and onerous. Enterprises must bear their corporate responsibility, the Party and government must bear the responsibility of the Party and government, neither side can abandon its own responsibility. In cybersecurity and informatization management, websites have the main responsibility, and government administrative management departments must strengthen supervision. Controlling departments and enterprises must establish close coordination and cooperation relationships, and avoid the phenomenon of “chaos once rules are loosened, and death once management stepped in” that occurred regularly in the past, they must match a new path of jointly grasping matters and managing affairs together, of benign interaction.

First, we must persist in the combination of encouragement, support, standardization and development. Enterprises directly face markets, they are at the first line of innovation, they are at the first line of grasping the masses’ demands, their market perception is very acute, they are sensitive to innovation needs, and strong with regard to innovation wishes. We should encourage and support enterprises to become centres of research and development, innovative centres and industrial centres, encourage and support enterprises to deploy advanced technology, promote indigenous innovation in core technology, create and grasp more opportunities, participate in international competition, and broaden their development space abroad.

At present, our country’s Internet market also harbours a number of situations including malicious competition, abuse of dominant market positions, etc., and there are quite a few opinions on this among small and mid-size enterprises. In this area, we must standardize market order, and encourage benign competition. This benefits the stimulation of the innovative vitality f enterprises, the improvement of their competitive ability and the broadening of their market space, and it also benefits the balance between all sides’ interests, safeguarding the national interest, and serving the common people ever better. We must strengthen intellectual property rights protection, raise the price of infringement and the cost of breaking the law, and frighten off unlawful and infringing acts. The 4th Plenum of the 18th Party Committee put forward that we must complete an intellectual property rights protection system with fairness as a core principle, strengthen protection of property rights of economic organizations of all kinds of ownership systems as well as natural persons, and clean up legal and regulatory provisions that are unfair. These requirements must be implemented as quickly as possible.

Second, persist in combining policy guidance and management according to the law. Government must create good conditions for the development of enterprises, accelerate the reform of examination and approval structures, funding structures and patent structures, reduce duplicate inspections and accreditations, implement a high-quality, high-price government procurement system, reduce burdens on enterprises, and eliminate systemic and mechanistic obstacles. After the 3rd Plenum of the 18th Party Congress, the Party Centre established the Leading Group for the Comprehensive Deepening of Reform, with me at the head, and it has already pushed out many reform plans that are connected to these points. Reform must continue to move forward, by which I mean to say that we must dare to gnaw at hard bones, and dare to ford dangerous rapids, and charge dangerous passes.

At the same time, we must accelerate the process of cyber legislation, perfect supervision and management measures according to the law, and dissolve cyber risks. The Ezubao and Zhongjinxi cases that occurred recently, hit the mark of illegal fundraising under the banner of “online finance”, have brought great material losses to the masses involved, this had a very grave social impact. Now, online fraud cases are growing in number, criminal methods are constantly changing, and their technology content is growing ever higher. This also reminds us that, when new technologies and new businesses develop, we must guard against the proliferation of risks.

We must strengthen the management of data according to the law. Some kinds of data involving the national interest and national security, is controlled in the hands of Internet enterprises, and enterprises must guarantee the security of these data. Enterprises must pay high regard to data security. If problems concerning data protection and security occur in enterprises, this will also bring a deleterious influence for their own reputation.

Third, persist in the combination of economic effect and social effect. An enterprise has economic and legal responsibilities on the one hand, and has social responsibilities and moral responsibilities on the other. The larger an enterprise grows, the greater its social responsibility and moral responsibility becomes, and the higher the masses’ demands are towards these enterprises. Our country’s Internet sector has, in the process of development, borne a great deal of social responsibility, this point must be fully affirmed, and I hope they will carry those forward”.

“Actions start with oneself, a reputation starts with others.” I have said that only wealth that is rich in kindness is truly just wealth, only enterprises that vigorously bear their social responsibilities are the most competitive enterprises, with the greatest vitality. Those running websites cannot blindly pursue click rates, those opening online stores must guard against fakes and poor quality, those running social interaction platforms cannot become dissemination tools for rumours, those running search engines cannot only take how much money someone gave as a standard for ranking. I hope that the broad Internet enterprises persist in the unity of economic effect and social effect, and at the same time as developing themselves, never forget their origins, repay favours to society, and enrich the people.

As for the sixth question, I will talk a little about gathering heroic talents from under heaven and employing them, so as to provide powerful talent support for the development of the cybersecurity and informatization undertaking.

Talent is the first resource. Since antiquity, talent has been the root of a country’s wealth, and a matter of fundamental importance in rejuvenating a nation. I have said that if we want to develop our cause well, we must gather heroic talents from under heaven and employ them. If we want to carry out our undertaking, we must have this vision, this audacity, and this spirit.

“Those who win over the people thrive, those who lose the people collapse.” Competition in cyberspace, in the final analysis, is a competition in talent. In building a strong cyber country, will be difficult to be successful without a line of excellent talent teams, without the creativity of talent bursting forth, or its vitality flowing. Only if we read “the Book of Talent” well, will be able to get twice the result with half the effort. Where our country is concerned, in the primary stage of reform and opening up, capital was relatively rare, and therefore we rolled out many policies to encourage the import of capital, for instance “2 years exemption and three years half payment”. Now, capital is no longer so rare, but talents – and especially high-end talents remain rare. Our brains must round a corner, we must both pay high regard to capital, and to talent, we must further strengthen our attraction of talents, and the pace of talent structure and mechanism reform must further accelerate. The cybersecurity and informatization area can take precedence in advance trials, in order to grasp investigation and research, and formulate rules to attract talent, foster talent and retain talent.

The Internet is a technology-intensive industry, and is one of the areas in which technological renewal happens most quickly. The development of our country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking must fully muster the vigour, initiative and creativity of entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, as well as scientific and technological personnel. Some years ago, when I worked in Zhengding district, in order to borrow wisdom from first-rate experts and scholars from around the nation, we especially invited Hua Luogeng and other such experts and scholars to act as consultant to our country, and some came to Zhengding in person to guide work. Entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, and scientific and technological personnel must be taken on by the state, and have social responsibility, they should contribute their wisdom and strength to stimulate the country’s cybersecurity and informatization undertaking. All levels’ Party Committees and governments must, from the bottom of their hearts, respect knowledge and respect talents, create good conditions to give rein to their intelligence and wisdom, create a relaxed atmosphere, and provide a broad platform.

The Internet is mainly an undertaking for the young, and we must not stick to one pattern in terms of talent. We must liberate thoughts, insightfully recognize talent, love talent and cherish talent. To foster cybersecurity and informatization talents, we must exert great efforts, spend great amounts of money, invite excellent teachers, create excellent textbooks, recruit excellent students, and build first-rate cyberspace security institutes. Talent in the Internet area often are eccentric talents and rare talents, they often do not walk a common path, and many of then think in strange and subtle ways. We must have special policies for special talents, we must not demand overall perfection, we must not assign jobs by seniority and formal qualifications, and we must not always use one yardstick to measure.

We must adopt special policies, and build human resource structures and remuneration structures suited to the characteristics of cybersecurity and informatization, we must concentrate excellent talents in technological departments, research departments and management departments. We must establish talent evaluation mechanisms suited to the characteristics of cybersecurity and informatization, make real capabilities into evaluation standards, not only look at formal schooling, not only look at treatises, and not only look at qualification records, we must give prominence to specialization, innovativity and practicality. We must establish flexible talent incentive mechanisms, and ensure that talents making contributions have a sense of achievement and a sense of gain. We must explore mechanisms for the ownership of scientific research achievements and intellectual property rights, and income allocation, in the cybersecurity and informatization sphere, and formulate specialized policies for talent input, technological input as well as tax collection. We must break through institutional boundaries in terms of talent flows, and let talent be able to flow between government, enterprise and think tanks in a smooth and orderly manner. We may also learn from the merits of the foreign kind of “revolving door” system.

Our country is one of the countries with the greatest scientific and technological talent resources, but it is also a country where the brain drain is relatively grave, and there is no lack of top talents among them. We must have a global vision in terms of talent appointment and promotion, and exert great efforts to bring in high-end talent. Following the incessant strengthening of our country’s comprehensive national strength, there are talents from many countries that hope to come to our country and develop. We must seize this opportunity, reform all structures concerning talent import, and build talent structures and systems that are globally competitive. Regardless of which country or which region they come from, as long a someone is an excellent talent, they may be useful to us. In this work, there are some enterprises and scientific research institutes that have already done so, I have gone to a number of enterprises and scientific research institutes, and I have engaged in discussions with these talents brought in from abroad. We must expand efforts in this area, and incessantly raise our capability to deploy talent resources worldwide.

Comrades! This year is the year in which the “13th Five-Year Plan” starts, cybersecurity and informatization work is the most important element in the “13th Five-Year Plan” period. I hope that the comrades vigorously thrown themselves into the construction of a strong cyber country, even better give rein to the roles of entrepreneurs, experts and scholars, and technological personnel in the cybersecurity and informatization area, and support them in making ever greater contributions to realize the comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society and to realize the Chinese Dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation!

在网络安全和信息化工作座谈会上的讲话

习近平

今天,我们召开一个网络安全和信息化工作座谈会。这个会,我一直想开。党的十八大以来,我国互联网事业快速发展,网络安全和信息化工作扎实推进,取得显著进步和成绩,同时也存在不少短板和问题。召开这次座谈会,就是要当面听取大家意见和建议,共同探讨一些措施和办法,以利于我们把工作做得更好。

刚才,几位同志讲得很好,分析了当前互联网发展新情况新动向,介绍了信息化发展新技术新趋势,提出了很好的意见和建议,听了很受启发。你们的发言,体现了务实的态度、创新的精神、强烈的责任感,也体现了在互联网领域较高的理论和实践水平,对我们改进工作很有帮助。有关部门要认真研究大家的意见和建议,能吸收的尽量吸收。下面,我谈几点意见,同大家交流。

第一个问题,讲讲推动我国网信事业发展,让互联网更好造福人民。

听了大家发言,我有一个总的感觉,就是对互联网来说,我国虽然是后来者,接入国际互联网只有20多年,但我们正确处理安全和发展、开放和自主、管理和服务的关系,推动互联网发展取得令人瞩目的成就。现在,互联网越来越成为人们学习、工作、生活的新空间,越来越成为获取公共服务的新平台。我国有7亿网民,这是一个了不起的数字,也是一个了不起的成就。

从社会发展史看,人类经历了农业革命、工业革命,正在经历信息革命。农业革命增强了人类生存能力,使人类从采食捕猎走向栽种畜养,从野蛮时代走向文明社会。工业革命拓展了人类体力,以机器取代了人力,以大规模工厂化生产取代了个体工场手工生产。而信息革命则增强了人类脑力,带来生产力又一次质的飞跃,对国际政治、经济、文化、社会、生态、军事等领域发展产生了深刻影响。

当前和今后一个时期,我国发展的目标是实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标。我说过,建设富强民主文明和谐的社会主义现代化国家,实现中华民族伟大复兴,是鸦片战争以来中国人民最伟大的梦想,是中华民族的最高利益和根本利益。今天,我们13亿多人的一切奋斗归根到底都是为了实现这一伟大目标。

我国曾经是世界上的经济强国,后来在欧洲发生工业革命、世界发生深刻变革的时期,丧失了与世界同进步的历史机遇,逐渐落到了被动挨打的境地。特别是鸦片战争之后,中华民族更是陷入积贫积弱、任人宰割的悲惨状况。想起这一段历史,我们心中都有刻骨铭心的痛。经过几代人努力,我们从来没有像今天这样离实现中华民族伟大复兴的目标如此之近,也从来没有像今天这样更有信心、更有能力实现中华民族伟大复兴。这是中华民族的一个重要历史机遇,我们必须牢牢抓住,决不能同这样的历史机遇失之交臂。这就是我们这一代人的历史责任,是我们对中华民族的责任,是对前人的责任,也是对后人的责任。

党的十八届五中全会提出了创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,这是在深刻总结国内外发展经验教训、深入分析国内外发展大势的基础上提出的,集中反映了我们党对我国经济社会发展规律的新认识。按照新发展理念推动我国经济社会发展,是当前和今后一个时期我国发展的总要求和大趋势。古人说:“随时以举事,因资而立功,用万物之能而获利其上。”我国网信事业发展要适应这个大趋势。总体上说,网信事业代表着新的生产力、新的发展方向,应该也能够在践行新发展理念上先行一步。

我国经济发展进入新常态,新常态要有新动力,互联网在这方面可以大有作为。我们实施“互联网+”行动计划,带动全社会兴起了创新创业热潮,信息经济在我国国内生产总值中的占比不断攀升。当今世界,信息化发展很快,不进则退,慢进亦退。我们要加强信息基础设施建设,强化信息资源深度整合,打通经济社会发展的信息“大动脉”。党的十八届五中全会、“十三五”规划纲要都对实施网络强国战略、“互联网+”行动计划、大数据战略等作了部署,要切实贯彻落实好,着力推动互联网和实体经济深度融合发展,以信息流带动技术流、资金流、人才流、物资流,促进资源配置优化,促进全要素生产率提升,为推动创新发展、转变经济发展方式、调整经济结构发挥积极作用。

网信事业要发展,必须贯彻以人民为中心的发展思想。这是党的十八届五中全会提出的一个重要观点。要适应人民期待和需求,加快信息化服务普及,降低应用成本,为老百姓提供用得上、用得起、用得好的信息服务,让亿万人民在共享互联网发展成果上有更多获得感。相比城市,农村互联网基础设施建设是我们的短板。要加大投入力度,加快农村互联网建设步伐,扩大光纤网、宽带网在农村的有效覆盖。可以做好信息化和工业化深度融合这篇大文章,发展智能制造,带动更多人创新创业;可以瞄准农业现代化主攻方向,提高农业生产智能化、经营网络化水平,帮助广大农民增加收入;可以发挥互联网优势,实施“互联网+教育”、“互联网+医疗”、“互联网+文化”等,促进基本公共服务均等化;可以发挥互联网在助推脱贫攻坚中的作用,推进精准扶贫、精准脱贫,让更多困难群众用上互联网,让农产品通过互联网走出乡村,让山沟里的孩子也能接受优质教育;可以加快推进电子政务,鼓励各级政府部门打破信息壁垒、提升服务效率,让百姓少跑腿、信息多跑路,解决办事难、办事慢、办事繁的问题,等等。这些方面有很多事情可做,一些互联网企业已经做了尝试,取得了较好的经济效益和社会效益。

有专家提出,我们的国家治理中存在信息共享、资源统筹、工作协调不够等问题,制约了国家治理效率和公共服务水平。这个问题要深入研究。我们提出推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,信息是国家治理的重要依据,要发挥其在这个进程中的重要作用。要以信息化推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,统筹发展电子政务,构建一体化在线服务平台,分级分类推进新型智慧城市建设,打通信息壁垒,构建全国信息资源共享体系,更好用信息化手段感知社会态势、畅通沟通渠道、辅助科学决策。

第二个问题,讲讲建设网络良好生态,发挥网络引导舆论、反映民意的作用。

互联网是一个社会信息大平台,亿万网民在上面获得信息、交流信息,这会对他们的求知途径、思维方式、价值观念产生重要影响,特别是会对他们对国家、对社会、对工作、对人生的看法产生重要影响。

实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标,需要全社会方方面面同心干,需要全国各族人民心往一处想、劲往一处使。如果一个社会没有共同理想,没有共同目标,没有共同价值观,整天乱哄哄的,那就什么事也办不成。我国有13亿多人,如果弄成那样一个局面,就不符合人民利益,也不符合国家利益。

凝聚共识工作不容易做,大家要共同努力。为了实现我们的目标,网上网下要形成同心圆。什么是同心圆?就是在党的领导下,动员全国各族人民,调动各方面积极性,共同为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而奋斗。

古人说:“知屋漏者在宇下,知政失者在草野。”很多网民称自己为“草根”,那网络就是现在的一个“草野”。网民来自老百姓,老百姓上了网,民意也就上了网。群众在哪儿,我们的领导干部就要到哪儿去,不然怎么联系群众呢?各级党政机关和领导干部要学会通过网络走群众路线,经常上网看看,潜潜水、聊聊天、发发声,了解群众所思所愿,收集好想法好建议,积极回应网民关切、解疑释惑。善于运用网络了解民意、开展工作,是新形势下领导干部做好工作的基本功。各级干部特别是领导干部一定要不断提高这项本领。

网民大多数是普通群众,来自四面八方,各自经历不同,观点和想法肯定是五花八门的,不能要求他们对所有问题都看得那么准、说得那么对。要多一些包容和耐心,对建设性意见要及时吸纳,对困难要及时帮助,对不了解情况的要及时宣介,对模糊认识要及时廓清,对怨气怨言要及时化解,对错误看法要及时引导和纠正,让互联网成为我们同群众交流沟通的新平台,成为了解群众、贴近群众、为群众排忧解难的新途径,成为发扬人民民主、接受人民监督的新渠道。

网络空间是亿万民众共同的精神家园。网络空间天朗气清、生态良好,符合人民利益。网络空间乌烟瘴气、生态恶化,不符合人民利益。谁都不愿生活在一个充斥着虚假、诈骗、攻击、谩骂、恐怖、色情、暴力的空间。互联网不是法外之地。利用网络鼓吹推翻国家政权,煽动宗教极端主义,宣扬民族分裂思想,教唆暴力恐怖活动,等等,这样的行为要坚决制止和打击,决不能任其大行其道。利用网络进行欺诈活动,散布色情材料,进行人身攻击,兜售非法物品,等等,这样的言行也要坚决管控,决不能任其大行其道。没有哪个国家会允许这样的行为泛滥开来。我们要本着对社会负责、对人民负责的态度,依法加强网络空间治理,加强网络内容建设,做强网上正面宣传,培育积极健康、向上向善的网络文化,用社会主义核心价值观和人类优秀文明成果滋养人心、滋养社会,做到正能量充沛、主旋律高昂,为广大网民特别是青少年营造一个风清气正的网络空间。

形成良好网上舆论氛围,不是说只能有一个声音、一个调子,而是说不能搬弄是非、颠倒黑白、造谣生事、违法犯罪,不能超越了宪法法律界限。我多次强调,要把权力关进制度的笼子里,一个重要手段就是发挥舆论监督包括互联网监督作用。这一条,各级党政机关和领导干部特别要注意,首先要做好。对网上那些出于善意的批评,对互联网监督,不论是对党和政府工作提的还是对领导干部个人提的,不论是和风细雨的还是忠言逆耳的,我们不仅要欢迎,而且要认真研究和吸取。

第三个问题,讲讲尽快在核心技术上取得突破。

20多年来,我国互联网发展取得的显著成就中,包括一批技术方面的成就。目前,在世界互联网企业前10强中,我们占了4席。在第二届世界互联网大会期间,我去看了“互联网之光”博览会,来自全球的250多家企业展出的1000多项新技术新成果中,我们也占了不少,这令人高兴。同时,我们也要看到,同世界先进水平相比,同建设网络强国战略目标相比,我们在很多方面还有不小差距,特别是在互联网创新能力、基础设施建设、信息资源共享、产业实力等方面还存在不小差距,其中最大的差距在核心技术上。

互联网核心技术是我们最大的“命门”,核心技术受制于人是我们最大的隐患。一个互联网企业即便规模再大、市值再高,如果核心元器件严重依赖外国,供应链的“命门”掌握在别人手里,那就好比在别人的墙基上砌房子,再大再漂亮也可能经不起风雨,甚至会不堪一击。我们要掌握我国互联网发展主动权,保障互联网安全、国家安全,就必须突破核心技术这个难题,争取在某些领域、某些方面实现“弯道超车”。

核心技术要取得突破,就要有决心、恒心、重心。有决心,就是要树立顽强拼搏、刻苦攻关的志气,坚定不移实施创新驱动发展战略,把更多人力物力财力投向核心技术研发,集合精锐力量,作出战略性安排。有恒心,就是要制定信息领域核心技术设备发展战略纲要,制定路线图、时间表、任务书,明确近期、中期、远期目标,遵循技术规律,分梯次、分门类、分阶段推进,咬定青山不放松。有重心,就是要立足我国国情,面向世界科技前沿,面向国家重大需求,面向国民经济主战场,紧紧围绕攀登战略制高点,强化重要领域和关键环节任务部署,把方向搞清楚,把重点搞清楚。否则,花了很多钱、投入了很多资源,最后南辕北辙,是难以取得成效的。

什么是核心技术?我看,可以从3个方面把握。一是基础技术、通用技术。二是非对称技术、“杀手锏”技术。三是前沿技术、颠覆性技术。在这些领域,我们同国外处在同一条起跑线上,如果能够超前部署、集中攻关,很有可能实现从跟跑并跑到并跑领跑的转变。我国网信领域广大企业家、专家学者、科技人员要树立这个雄心壮志,要争这口气,努力尽快在核心技术上取得新的重大突破。正所谓“日日行,不怕千万里;常常做,不怕千万事”。

我国信息技术产业体系相对完善、基础较好,在一些领域已经接近或达到世界先进水平,市场空间很大,有条件有能力在核心技术上取得更大进步,关键是要理清思路、脚踏实地去干。

第一,正确处理开放和自主的关系。互联网让世界变成了地球村,推动国际社会越来越成为你中有我、我中有你的命运共同体。现在,有一种观点认为,互联网很复杂、很难治理,不如一封了之、一关了之。这种说法是不正确的,也不是解决问题的办法。中国开放的大门不能关上,也不会关上。我们要鼓励和支持我国网信企业走出去,深化互联网国际交流合作,积极参与“一带一路”建设,做到“国家利益在哪里,信息化就覆盖到哪里”。外国互联网企业,只要遵守我国法律法规,我们都欢迎。

现在,在技术发展上有两种观点值得注意。一种观点认为,要关起门来,另起炉灶,彻底摆脱对外国技术的依赖,靠自主创新谋发展,否则总跟在别人后面跑,永远追不上。另一种观点认为,要开放创新,站在巨人肩膀上发展自己的技术,不然也追不上。这两种观点都有一定道理,但也都绝对了一些,没有辩证看待问题。一方面,核心技术是国之重器,最关键最核心的技术要立足自主创新、自立自强。市场换不来核心技术,有钱也买不来核心技术,必须靠自己研发、自己发展。另一方面,我们强调自主创新,不是关起门来搞研发,一定要坚持开放创新,只有跟高手过招才知道差距,不能夜郎自大。

我们不拒绝任何新技术,新技术是人类文明发展的成果,只要有利于提高我国社会生产力水平、有利于改善人民生活,我们都不拒绝。问题是要搞清楚哪些是可以引进但必须安全可控的,哪些是可以引进消化吸收再创新的,哪些是可以同别人合作开发的,哪些是必须依靠自己的力量自主创新的。核心技术的根源问题是基础研究问题,基础研究搞不好,应用技术就会成为无源之水、无本之木。

第二,在科研投入上集中力量办大事。近年来,我们在核心技术研发上投的钱不少,但效果还不是很明显。我看,主要问题是好钢没有用在刀刃上。要围绕国家亟需突破的核心技术,把拳头攥紧,坚持不懈做下去。

第三,积极推动核心技术成果转化。技术要发展,必须要使用。在全球信息领域,创新链、产业链、价值链整合能力越来越成为决定成败的关键。核心技术研发的最终结果,不应只是技术报告、科研论文、实验室样品,而应是市场产品、技术实力、产业实力。核心技术脱离了它的产业链、价值链、生态系统,上下游不衔接,就可能白忙活一场。

科研和经济不能搞成“两张皮”,要着力推进核心技术成果转化和产业化。经过一定范围论证,该用的就要用。我们自己推出的新技术新产品,在应用中出现一些问题是自然的。可以在用的过程中继续改进,不断提高质量。如果大家都不用,就是报一个课题完成报告,然后束之高阁,那永远发展不起来。

第四,推动强强联合、协同攻关。要打好核心技术研发攻坚战,不仅要把冲锋号吹起来,而且要把集合号吹起来,也就是要把最强的力量积聚起来共同干,组成攻关的突击队、特种兵。我们同国际先进水平在核心技术上差距悬殊,一个很突出的原因,是我们的骨干企业没有像微软、英特尔、谷歌、苹果那样形成协同效应。美国有个所谓的“文泰来”联盟,微软的视窗操作系统只配对英特尔的芯片。在核心技术研发上,强强联合比单打独斗效果要好,要在这方面拿出些办法来,彻底摆脱部门利益和门户之见的束缚。抱着宁为鸡头、不为凤尾的想法,抱着自己拥有一亩三分地的想法,形不成合力,是难以成事的。

一些同志关于组建产学研用联盟的建议很好。比如,可以组建“互联网+”联盟、高端芯片联盟等,加强战略、技术、标准、市场等沟通协作,协同创新攻关。可以探索搞揭榜挂帅,把需要的关键核心技术项目张出榜来,英雄不论出处,谁有本事谁就揭榜。在这方面,既要发挥国有企业作用,也要发挥民营企业作用,也可以两方面联手来干。还可以探索更加紧密的资本型协作机制,成立核心技术研发投资公司,发挥龙头企业优势,带动中小企业发展,既解决上游企业技术推广应用问题,也解决下游企业“缺芯少魂”问题。

第四个问题,讲讲正确处理安全和发展的关系。

网络安全和信息化是相辅相成的。安全是发展的前提,发展是安全的保障,安全和发展要同步推进。我们一定要认识到,古往今来,很多技术都是“双刃剑”,一方面可以造福社会、造福人民,另一方面也可以被一些人用来损害社会公共利益和民众利益。从世界范围看,网络安全威胁和风险日益突出,并日益向政治、经济、文化、社会、生态、国防等领域传导渗透。特别是国家关键信息基础设施面临较大风险隐患,网络安全防控能力薄弱,难以有效应对国家级、有组织的高强度网络攻击。这对世界各国都是一个难题,我们当然也不例外。

面对复杂严峻的网络安全形势,我们要保持清醒头脑,各方面齐抓共管,切实维护网络安全。

第一,树立正确的网络安全观。理念决定行动。当今的网络安全,有几个主要特点。一是网络安全是整体的而不是割裂的。在信息时代,网络安全对国家安全牵一发而动全身,同许多其他方面的安全都有着密切关系。二是网络安全是动态的而不是静态的。信息技术变化越来越快,过去分散独立的网络变得高度关联、相互依赖,网络安全的威胁来源和攻击手段不断变化,那种依靠装几个安全设备和安全软件就想永保安全的想法已不合时宜,需要树立动态、综合的防护理念。三是网络安全是开放的而不是封闭的。只有立足开放环境,加强对外交流、合作、互动、博弈,吸收先进技术,网络安全水平才会不断提高。四是网络安全是相对的而不是绝对的。没有绝对安全,要立足基本国情保安全,避免不计成本追求绝对安全,那样不仅会背上沉重负担,甚至可能顾此失彼。五是网络安全是共同的而不是孤立的。网络安全为人民,网络安全靠人民,维护网络安全是全社会共同责任,需要政府、企业、社会组织、广大网民共同参与,共筑网络安全防线。这几个特点,各有关方面要好好把握。

第二,加快构建关键信息基础设施安全保障体系。金融、能源、电力、通信、交通等领域的关键信息基础设施是经济社会运行的神经中枢,是网络安全的重中之重,也是可能遭到重点攻击的目标。“物理隔离”防线可被跨网入侵,电力调配指令可被恶意篡改,金融交易信息可被窃取,这些都是重大风险隐患。不出问题则已,一出就可能导致交通中断、金融紊乱、电力瘫痪等问题,具有很大的破坏性和杀伤力。我们必须深入研究,采取有效措施,切实做好国家关键信息基础设施安全防护。

第三,全天候全方位感知网络安全态势。知己知彼,才能百战不殆。没有意识到风险是最大的风险。网络安全具有很强的隐蔽性,一个技术漏洞、安全风险可能隐藏几年都发现不了,结果是“谁进来了不知道、是敌是友不知道、干了什么不知道”,长期“潜伏”在里面,一旦有事就发作了。

维护网络安全,首先要知道风险在哪里,是什么样的风险,什么时候发生风险,正所谓“聪者听于无声,明者见于未形”。感知网络安全态势是最基本最基础的工作。要全面加强网络安全检查,摸清家底,认清风险,找出漏洞,通报结果,督促整改。要建立统一高效的网络安全风险报告机制、情报共享机制、研判处置机制,准确把握网络安全风险发生的规律、动向、趋势。要建立政府和企业网络安全信息共享机制,把企业掌握的大量网络安全信息用起来,龙头企业要带头参加这个机制。

有专家反映,在数据开放、信息共享方面存在着部门利益、行业利益、本位思想。这方面,要加强论证,该统的可以统起来,发挥1+1大于2的效应,以综合运用各方面掌握的数据资源,加强大数据挖掘分析,更好感知网络安全态势,做好风险防范。这项工作做好了,对国家、对社会、对企业、对民众都是有好处的。

第四,增强网络安全防御能力和威慑能力。网络安全的本质在对抗,对抗的本质在攻防两端能力较量。要落实网络安全责任制,制定网络安全标准,明确保护对象、保护层级、保护措施。哪些方面要重兵把守、严防死守,哪些方面由地方政府保障、适度防范,哪些方面由市场力量防护,都要有本清清楚楚的账。人家用的是飞机大炮,我们这里还用大刀长矛,那是不行的,攻防力量要对等。要以技术对技术,以技术管技术,做到魔高一尺、道高一丈。

目前,大国网络安全博弈,不单是技术博弈,还是理念博弈、话语权博弈。我们提出了全球互联网发展治理的“四项原则”、“五点主张”,特别是我们倡导尊重网络主权、构建网络空间命运共同体,赢得了世界绝大多数国家赞同。

第五个问题,讲讲增强互联网企业使命感、责任感,共同促进互联网持续健康发展。

我国互联网企业由小到大、由弱变强,在稳增长、促就业、惠民生等方面发挥了重要作用。让企业持续健康发展,既是企业家奋斗的目标,也是国家发展的需要。企业命运与国家发展息息相关。脱离了国家支持、脱离了群众支持,脱离了为国家服务、为人民服务,企业难以做强做大。

今年全国“两会”期间,我在参加全国政协十二届四次会议民建、工商联界委员联组会时强调,实行公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,是中国共产党确立的一项大政方针,是中国特色社会主义制度的重要组成部分,也是完善社会主义市场经济体制的必然要求;我们党在坚持基本经济制度上的观点是明确的、一贯的,而且是不断深化的,从来没有动摇,这是不会变的,也是不能变的。我不仅讲了话,而且很快就把我的讲话公开发表了,这就是要让广大企业家吃个“定心丸”。

我们国家这么大、人口这么多,要把经济社会发展搞上去,需要各方面齐心协力干,公有制经济、非公有制经济应该相辅相成、相得益彰,而不是相互排斥、相互抵消。非公有制企业搞大了、搞好了、搞到世界上去了,为国家和人民作出更大贡献了,是国家的光荣。党和政府当然要支持,这一点是毫无疑义的。

在我国,7亿多人上互联网,肯定需要管理,而且这个管理是很复杂、很繁重的。企业要承担企业的责任,党和政府要承担党和政府的责任,哪一边都不能放弃自己的责任。网上信息管理,网站应负主体责任,政府行政管理部门要加强监管。主管部门、企业要建立密切协作协调的关系,避免过去经常出现的“一放就乱、一管就死”现象,走出一条齐抓共管、良性互动的新路。

第一,坚持鼓励支持和规范发展并行。企业直接面向市场,处在创新第一线,处在掌握民众需要第一线,市场感觉敏锐,创新需求敏感,创新愿望强烈。应该鼓励和支持企业成为研发主体、创新主体、产业主体,鼓励和支持企业布局前沿技术,推动核心技术自主创新,创造和把握更多机会,参与国际竞争,拓展海外发展空间。

当前,我国互联网市场也存在一些恶性竞争、滥用市场支配地位等情况,中小企业对此意见不少。这方面,要规范市场秩序,鼓励进行良性竞争。这既有利于激发企业创新活力、提升竞争能力、扩大市场空间,又有利于平衡各方利益、维护国家利益、更好服务百姓。要加大知识产权保护力度,提高侵权代价和违法成本,震慑违法侵权行为。党的十八届四中全会提出健全以公平为核心原则的产权保护制度,加强对各种所有制经济组织和自然人财产权的保护,清理有违公平的法律法规条款。这些要求要尽快落实到位。

第二,坚持政策引导和依法管理并举。政府要为企业发展营造良好环境,加快推进审批制度、融资制度、专利制度等改革,减少重复检测认证,施行优质优价政府采购制度,减轻企业负担,破除体制机制障碍。党的十八届三中全会以后,党中央成立了全面深化改革领导小组,我当组长,已经推出的很多改革方案都同这些方面有联系。改革要继续推进,也就是我说的要敢于啃硬骨头,敢于涉险滩、闯难关。

同时,要加快网络立法进程,完善依法监管措施,化解网络风险。前段时间发生的e租宝、中晋系案件,打着“网络金融”旗号非法集资,给有关群众带来严重财产损失,社会影响十分恶劣。现在,网络诈骗案件越来越多,作案手段花样翻新,技术含量越来越高。这也提醒我们,在发展新技术新业务时,必须警惕风险蔓延。

要依法加强对大数据的管理。一些涉及国家利益、国家安全的数据,很多掌握在互联网企业手里,企业要保证这些数据安全。企业要重视数据安全。如果企业在数据保护和安全上出了问题,对自己的信誉也会产生不利影响。

第三,坚持经济效益和社会效益并重。一个企业既有经济责任、法律责任,也有社会责任、道德责任。企业做得越大,社会责任、道德责任就越大,公众对企业这方面的要求也就越高。我国互联网企业在发展过程中,承担了很多社会责任,这一点要给予充分肯定,希望继续发扬光大。

“行生于己,名生于人。”我说过,只有富有爱心的财富才是真正有意义的财富,只有积极承担社会责任的企业才是最有竞争力和生命力的企业。办网站的不能一味追求点击率,开网店的要防范假冒伪劣,做社交平台的不能成为谣言扩散器,做搜索的不能仅以给钱的多少作为排位的标准。希望广大互联网企业坚持经济效益和社会效益统一,在自身发展的同时,饮水思源,回报社会,造福人民。

第六个问题,讲讲聚天下英才而用之,为网信事业发展提供有力人才支撑。

人才是第一资源。古往今来,人才都是富国之本、兴邦大计。我说过,要把我们的事业发展好,就要聚天下英才而用之。要干一番大事业,就要有这种眼界、这种魄力、这种气度。

“得人者兴,失人者崩。”网络空间的竞争,归根结底是人才竞争。建设网络强国,没有一支优秀的人才队伍,没有人才创造力迸发、活力涌流,是难以成功的。念好了人才经,才能事半功倍。对我国来说,改革开放初期,资本比较稀缺,所以我们出台了很多鼓励引进资本的政策,比如“两免三减半”。现在,资本已经不那么稀缺了,但人才特别是高端人才依然稀缺。我们的脑子要转过弯来,既要重视资本,更要重视人才,引进人才力度要进一步加大,人才体制机制改革步子要进一步迈开。网信领域可以先行先试,抓紧调研,制定吸引人才、培养人才、留住人才的办法。

互联网是技术密集型产业,也是技术更新最快的领域之一。我国网信事业发展,必须充分调动企业家、专家学者、科技人员积极性、主动性、创造性。我早年在正定县工作时,为了向全国一流专家学者借智,专门聘请华罗庚等专家学者给我们县当顾问,有的亲自到正定指导工作。企业家、专家学者、科技人员要有国家担当、社会责任,为促进国家网信事业发展多贡献自己的智慧和力量。各级党委和政府要从心底里尊重知识、尊重人才,为人才发挥聪明才智创造良好条件,营造宽松环境,提供广阔平台。

互联网主要是年轻人的事业,要不拘一格降人才。要解放思想,慧眼识才,爱才惜才。培养网信人才,要下大功夫、下大本钱,请优秀的老师,编优秀的教材,招优秀的学生,建一流的网络空间安全学院。互联网领域的人才,不少是怪才、奇才,他们往往不走一般套路,有很多奇思妙想。对待特殊人才要有特殊政策,不要求全责备,不要论资排辈,不要都用一把尺子衡量。

要采取特殊政策,建立适应网信特点的人事制度、薪酬制度,把优秀人才凝聚到技术部门、研究部门、管理部门中来。要建立适应网信特点的人才评价机制,以实际能力为衡量标准,不唯学历,不唯论文,不唯资历,突出专业性、创新性、实用性。要建立灵活的人才激励机制,让作出贡献的人才有成就感、获得感。要探索网信领域科研成果、知识产权归属、利益分配机制,在人才入股、技术入股以及税收方面制定专门政策。在人才流动上要打破体制界限,让人才能够在政府、企业、智库间实现有序顺畅流动。国外那种“旋转门”制度的优点,我们也可以借鉴。

我国是科技人才资源最多的国家之一,但也是人才流失比较严重的国家,其中不乏顶尖人才。在人才选拔上要有全球视野,下大气力引进高端人才。随着我国综合国力不断增强,有很多国家的人才也希望来我国发展。我们要顺势而为,改革人才引进各项配套制度,构建具有全球竞争力的人才制度体系。不管是哪个国家、哪个地区的,只要是优秀人才,都可以为我所用。这项工作,有些企业、科研院所已经做了,我到一些企业、科研院所去,也同这些从国外引进的人才进行过交谈。这方面要加大力度,不断提高我们在全球配置人才资源能力。

同志们!今年是“十三五”开局之年,网络安全和信息化工作是“十三五”时期的重头戏。希望同志们积极投身网络强国建设,更好发挥网信领域企业家、专家学者、技术人员作用,支持他们为实现全面建成小康社会、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦作出更大的贡献!

 

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